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REPLICABLITY: Perhaps one way to demonstrate
validity is to ensure that the result of an experiment or an
observation can be repeated. If the results is the same
this affirms the truth in the results, especially if OBJECTIVITY: Scientists strive to be objective in
observations have been made by different people. In their observations and measurements, e.g. their
order for others to obtain the same results, the scientists expectations shouldn't effect what they record. This
must ensure that the research has been conducted tends to be views being based on observable
carefully under careful conditions. phenomena and not personal opinion, prejudices or
emotion.
HYPOTHESIS TESTING:
Induction: This tends to
REASERCH involve reasoning from the
EMPIRICISM: Information is particular to the general.
gained through direct observation METHODS This was how the scientist
or experiment rather than by THEME A worked in the 20th century.
reasoning argument or by F.O.S Where principles of
unfounded beliefs. induction > induction >
discoveries > observation >
formulation of theory,
CONTROL: Scientists seek to
example Newton's
THEORY CONSTRUCTION: Perhaps demonstrate causal
observations. Deduction:
one aim in science is to record facts but relationships to enable them to
involves reasoning from the
an additional aim is to use these facts to predict and control our world.
general to the particular,
construct natural phenomena around us. The experimental method is the
theory > Darwin's theory of
A theory tends to be a collection of only way to do this, where we
evolution, he formulated the
general, facts and principles that explains vary one factor (IV) to observe
theory to test its propositions
the observations and facts that we make. the effect on (DV) In order for
by observing animals in
this to become a fair test all
nature. Popper et al
other variables must be
suggests that hypotheses
controlled.
can be falsified.…read more

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RELIABILITY: the extent to which those research
findings can be reproduced. In other words do we get
the same/consistent results again and again. Assessing SELF-REPORT
and improving reliability: There are several ways in TECHNIQUES: there are
which reliability can be assessed and improved. This two different types of validity
often involves are correlational analysis to assess the when thinking of using
consistency of observer ratings or psychological techniques such as self-
measuring instruments such as psychometric tests. report methods or interviews
. Internal reliability is the
measure of the extent to
which something is
INTER-RATER RELIABILITY: this consistent within its self, for
measures the extent to which REASERCH example all the questions on
observers achieve similar results METHODS an IQ test(which kind of
when observing similar sets of questionnaire should be
scores. If inter-rater reliability is THEME B
measuring the same thing )
achieved there will be a RELIABILITY External reliability: is a
significant positive correlation measure of consistency over
between the two. a few occasions, if the
How to Improve reliability in results are the same over an
OTHER METHODS: Split half method= research? By using interview in one day then
this involves splitting the test in two standardised procedures we over a week, then external
halves and comparing the scores in both can assure that the researcher reliability has been
halves. If the results in the two halves are has a clear idea about the achieved.
similar we can assume the test is reliable. instructions and sampling
Test-Retest method= if the measure techniques. Also a clear
depends upon interpretation of operationalized definition of the
behaviour, we can compare results from variables in the study.
two or more raters. If the results from
both tests are similar we can assume the
test is reliable.…read more

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TYPES OF VALIDITY: Internal Validity: is affected by PROBLEMS WITH VALIDITY: Situational
extraneous variables within the research this will affect variables can be overcome by the use of
the original IV and it's effects on the DV. External standardised procedures which ensures that all
Validity is the extent to which the findings can be participants are tested in the same conditions.
generalised to real life situations and to real people. Participant variables can be completely
removed by repeated measure design or
matched pairs design. Investigator bias can be
POPULATION VALIDITY: the overcome by using double-blind technique.
extent to which the findings of the The researcher must be careful when creating
a research can be generalised to a study so that that participants cannot guess
other groups of people. the aim of the research.
CONSTUCT VALIDITY: In an The internal validity can also be
experiment this is the degree to REASERCH effected by observer bias, what
which the definition of the IV and
DV correspond to the theoretical
METHODS someone observes is influenced
by their expectation, this reduces
concepts which they meant to be THEME B the objectivity of observations.
tapping into. VALIDITY Observations = natural data =
TEMPORAL VALIDITY: the ecological validity,
degree to which the findings of a
research study can be generalised
to the past and future.
ECOLOGICAL VALIDITY: the
FACTORS THAT THREATEN VALIDITY: extent to which the findings of a
confounding variables such as: the use of research study can be
unreliable or inconsistent measures; lack generalised to other settings or
of standardisation and randomisation; situations.
experimenter effects demand
characteristics and participant activity.…read more

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A sample should represent the population from which it
is taken, (target population) in every single way- this is
referred to as a representative sample. Different
sampling techniques are used in order to obtain this Snowball sample: this is where the researcher asks
sample. one or two individuals to take part in the research.
Opportunity sample: participants are selected by using The participants then ask more people to try and
those people who are mostly available. This is the obtain a bigger sample size. This is prone to bias as
easiest method to use but it is inevitably biased because the researcher might have access to a limited amount
the sample is drawn from a small part of a target of people in the population
population. For example selecting the sample from the
busy street.sample: participants
Volunteer
are selected via volunteering to
take part in the research. For REASERCH
example the researcher could PROBLEMS: the key issue
place advertisements in METHODS with selecting the sample is
newspapers. This would make the THEME B if it has population validity.
sample the more representative, SAMPLING This is increased if the
however such samples are highly sample is representative of
biased, as only highly motivated the whole sample. More
people and those with extra time Stratified and Quota sample: representative > more
on their hands are available. representation of the generalised to the
population. In quota sampling it population. Example
Random Sample: Participants are is done using an opportunity Banyard and Hunt (2000)
selected using a random number sample, subject to bias, sub- reviewed all the studies in
generator, this involves all the people in groups within the population two UK journals over 2
the town are selected, then they are are identified (age gender or years. They found 71% of
either selected via drawing from a hat or different age groups) then they the samples had involved
from a random number generator. This are selected according to the university students.
method is potentially unbiased as proportional
everyone has an equal chance of being
selected but it is time consuming.…read more

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The first issues to deal with deception and informed
consent. Ideally participants should be able to know
about all the aspects of the research before agreeing to
take part. This is a basic right stringed from the Responsibility: Psychologists have a responsibility
inhumane experiments performed in the camps. Also to their clients, to the general public and the science
the participants must be protected from harm, e.g. of Psychology. This includes protecting participants
Ainsworth's Strange Situation argues that the distress from physical and psychological harm as well as
caused in her experiment was no different to what they debriefing at the conclusion, so that participants are
experience in every day life. protected and are reassured.
Respect: this is for the dignity for
the participants. This means that REASERCH
the confidentiality is crucial, for METHODS
the participants data to be kept
and not used without the
THEME B
Dealing with Ethical
permission of the participant. ETHICAL ISSUES Issues: the code of conduct
offers ethical guidelines for
psychologists to follow. In
Competence: Psychologists conjunction with such
Intentional deception: (lack of informed should maintain high standards guidelines psychologists
consent) is only acceptable when the in their professional work. deal with ethical issues by
integrity of the research is being Integrity: Psychologists should using ethical committees to
protected and when the nature of be honest and accurate. This assess research proposals.
deception is disclosed to the participants means reporting the findings of
at the earliest opportunity. Participants any research accurately and
should have the Right to Withdraw from acknowledging any potential
the research at any time. limitations. Also included
misconduct of psychologists to
the BPS.…read more

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Shannon Birds

research-not reaserch

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