Normative & Informational Influence

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What is Informational Influence.
Influence based on the informational value of opinions expressed by others, on what they tell a person about aspects of reality.
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What is Normative Influence?
Influence based on the need to be accepted and approved by others. Maximise the chance of others liking them and avoid being rejected for disagreeing.
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Explain the findings of the Deutsch and Gerard (1955) normative influence experiment.
By increasing interdependance in a group from the Crutchfield version of the Asch task by creating a reward, twice as much conformity resulted when compared to the baseline condition.
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Name an experiment which studied percieved competance's effect on conformity?
Di Vesta (1959) showed that more conformity resulted on later trails if earlier trials contained more neutral trials (where majority gives correct answer).
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How did increase in task difficulty affect confirmity in Baron, Vandello & Brunsman's (1996) experiment?
Increase in task difficulty had them turn more towards the group of unanimous others as they became uncertain.
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How did the introduction of tangible material rewards effect conformity in Baron, Vandello & Brunsman's (1996) experiment?
When answers were difficult, introduction of rewards increased conformity, but when answers were easy it's introdution reduced conformity.
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In Asch's (1951) experiment, how did the size of a group's (varying from 1-16) affect conformity?
One person had no effect, two persons already produced 13% errors and with three confederates the conformity effect reached it's full effect at 33% errors, despite the addition of more confederates.
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How do later studies question Asch's results on group size and conformity?
Studies by Gerard, Wilhelmy & Connolley(1968) and Latané and Wolf (1981) suggests that adding more members will increase members by diminshing increments per added member.
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How do Bond & Smith's (1996) findings contribute to these findings?
Bond & Smith's findings indicate that adding more members to the majority only leads to more conformity if the members are percieved as independent judges and not sheep blindly following the unanimous majority.
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Describe how Asch's inclusion of a 'supporter' affected conformity.
When a 'supporter', i.e. a confederate who gave consistantly correct answers throughout and spoke before the participants, was included, conformity dropped to a mere 5.5%.
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What, other than a break in the unanimity of group, could have lead to this reduction in conformity.
A 'supporter' could have created a sense of social support with the participant which may also have been the cause of the reduced conformity.
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How did Asch tackle this extraneous variable in his 'supporter' trials?
He created an 'extreme dissenter' confederate, who went against the unanimity of the group, but gave an even more incorrect answer, leaving the real participant with no social support.
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What were the results of this and what are the implications?
The 'extreme dissenter' was nearly as effective as the 'supporter' in reducing conformity, which shows that it is the break in the groups unanimity and not social support that reduced conformity.
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How do Allen & Levine (1968, 1969) challenge this?
They found that this only holds in unambiguous stimulus situations, as in Asch's experiments. Opinion statements require genuine social supporters to reduce conformity.
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In Allen & Bragg (1965) and Allen and Wilder's (1972) experiment, how did participants act when a partner who was present at the beginning then left after a period of time?
As long as the participants were assured that the partner would resist the pressure of the majority in the same situation, the participants continued to do the same in their absence
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How did Asch's participants react when a partner switched sides through the experiment and followed the incorrect majority.
They did not maintain independence and, instead, conformed to majority influence as if they never had a partner.
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How could these normative influence studies be trasferred to an informational influence explanation?
Such as with the desertion effect, partners whose judgement is trusted by participants will strongly influence the participants behaviour as they are viewed as reliable and intelligent.
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How did Allen and Levine (1971) study informational influence's effect on conformity?
In two of three conditions, participants were given a social supporter, one invalid (with extremely poor eyesight) and one valid. In the other condition there was a unanimous majority.
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What were the results of this study by Allen and Levine (1971)?
Although invalid social support was sufficient to reduce conformity, compared to the unanimous majority condition, a valid social supporter had much more influence.
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Card 2

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What is Normative Influence?

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Influence based on the need to be accepted and approved by others. Maximise the chance of others liking them and avoid being rejected for disagreeing.

Card 3

Front

Explain the findings of the Deutsch and Gerard (1955) normative influence experiment.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Name an experiment which studied percieved competance's effect on conformity?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How did increase in task difficulty affect confirmity in Baron, Vandello & Brunsman's (1996) experiment?

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