Social influence and Social norms

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What is norm development?
Social norms emerge to guide behaviour in conditions of uncertainty
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What did he do?
autokinetic effect
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What did they make judgements on?
point of light appears to move, judgement alone or in groups of 2/3
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What are use of judgements?
others as frame of reference
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What happens?
Converge away from individual to common standard=social norm
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What is conformity?
rational process- people construct norm from others' behaviour to determine appropriate behaviour
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What was the average conformity?
33%
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Why?
Self-doubt, self-conscious, fear of social disapproval
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When judgements were anomynous what happened?
conformity dropped to 12.5%
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What is informational influence?
Ambiguous/uncertain situations, need to feel confident that perceptions/beliefs, influence to accept info from another as evidence about reality, true cognitive change
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What is normative influence?
Need for social approval and acceptance, avoid disapproval surface compliance
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What does Sherif's study?
Informational influence, ambiguous--> uncertainty--> use others' estimates as information to resolve subjective uncertainty
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What is Asch's study?
Normative influence, unambiguous, go along with group, especially under surveillance
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What is social influence complience?
Public aggreement and outward change in behaviour
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What does it not reflect?
Internal change; persists only while behaviour under surveillance
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What is conversion?
Private agreement, acceptance, true internal change that persists in absense of surveillance
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What else happens?
Confidence and certainty that beliefs/ actions described by norm are correct, valid and appropriate
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What is minority influence?
Social influence processes whereby numerical or power minorities change the attitudes of the majority
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When is it effective?
Consistent
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What is majority influence?
Produces public compliance via social comparison
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What does minority influence produce?
Indirect, private change in opinion; conversion effect as a consequence of active consideration of minority point of view
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What did Milgram do?
Electric shocks applied to confederate in mock learning study, people socialised to respect authority of the state
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What is an agentic state?
mentally absolve of own responsibility and transfer responsibility to person giving order
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What happened throughout Milgram's study?
If pps was hesitating experiment told pps to go on: ‘Please continue’ ‘The experiment requires you to continue’ ‘It is absolutelyessential that you continue’ ‘You have no choice, you must go on’
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factors influencing obedience (4)
Gradual change and commitment, immediacy of victim, immediacy of authority figure, legitimacy of authority figure
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What is the gradual change and commitment?
pps commited to course of action
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What is immediacy of victim?
As immediacy increased obedience decreased
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What is immediacy of authority figure?
Obedience decreased when experimenter not in room & directions given by telephone
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What is legitimacy of authority figure?
Lab coat experimenter, tale
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What ethical issues?
Objectivity, free to terminate experiment, freely consent
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What did he do?

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autokinetic effect

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What did they make judgements on?

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Card 4

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What are use of judgements?

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What happens?

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