Music GCSE AoS 4 - Rag Desh - Basics, and Anoushka Shankar

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What 2 sections can Indian music be divided into?
Music of Northern India (Hindustani tradition). Music of the South (Carnatic tradition)
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What section is Rag Desh taken from?
Indian classical tradition of Northern India. Rag Desh Monsoon Season.
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How is Indian music traditionally learnt?
Oral tradition. Indian families have a system of master-pupil teaching known as a gharana.
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What are typical features of Indian music?
Melody, (typically played by sitar, voice, or saroud), drone (typically tambura), and rhythm (repetitive cylic cycle -tabla).
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What is a rag?
A set of notes which are combined to create a particular mood. ). Like a scale, a rag ascends and descends, but pitches often differ in each direction, and the number of notes in a rag will vary considerably.
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What does Indian philoposhy belive about the voice?
By singing, it is possible to talk to the Gods.
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Describe the sitar.
Plucked instrument,has seven principle metal strings; two are used as a drone; below are usually up to a dozen loose-fretted strings called 'sympathetic', as they vibrate when the top strings are plucked which gives the traditional 'twangy' sound
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Desribe common playing techniques of string instruments.
Sliding between notes in intervals of quarter tones or less. Playing rapid scale-like flourishes called tan. Virtuoso passages of improvisation feature in i.e. gat, and jhalla.
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Describe the saranji.
Smaller than a sitar and differs in that it is fretless and uses bow rather than plucking the strings. Has a gentle tone. Ideally used to accompany singers
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Describe the sarod.
Smaller than the sitar, but like a sitar it has two sets of strings to create the distorted effect common to the sitar. Fretless and has a metal fingerboard so that the player can slide up and down the strings to obtain different notes
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Describe the tambura.
Simple instrument with only four strings and a resonator. Used to provide drone notes accompanying the singer or instrumentalist.
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Describe the tabla.
Small set of two drums of different sizes, smaller made of wood (tabla) larger one made of metal (baya). Drums play the chosen rhythm, known as the tala, as well as improvisatory rhythms.
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What woodwind instruments are used?
The flute (bansuri) and oboe (shehnai). Do not have keys like modern Western equivalents but a series of holes.
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What tals are used in Anoushka Shankar (sitar)?
Tintal and jhaptal.
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What is the Jhaptal? (Anoushka Shankar).
Jhaptal (10 beats): 2 + 3 + 2 + 3.
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Desribe the Alap of Anouskha Shankar.
Slow unmetered, introductory section where the unaccompanied sitar introduces the notes and the mood of the rag. Rhythm is free and there is no regular pulse. Intricate decoration to the melodic line made by pulling the strings to get from one note.
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Describe Gat 1 of Anouskha Shankar.
Played at madhyalaya (medium speed). Tabla enters in jhaptal, with improvisation and decoration around the basic beats. Tabla and sitar alternate short melodic and rhythmic improvisations.
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Desribe Gat 1 of Anouskha Shankar.
Ending of these improvisations is shown by playing a tihai, rhythmic and melodic device where a short phrase is played three times, often across the beat, before it lands on sam, the first beat of the cycle. Sitar improvises, using triplet phrasing.
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Desribe Gat 2 of Anouskha Shankar.
Drut (fast) gat in tintal. Drone strings (chikari) of the sitar are strummed to give added rhythmic effect called jhalla. Final tihai is played, starting at 11:11.
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Card 2


What section is Rag Desh taken from?


Indian classical tradition of Northern India. Rag Desh Monsoon Season.

Card 3


How is Indian music traditionally learnt?


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Card 4


What are typical features of Indian music?


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Card 5


What is a rag?


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