Materials and components

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what are the two different types of fibre?
Staple (short) fibres and filament (long) fibres
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What are the three main groups of fibre?
Natural- from animals or plants. Synthetic- man-made from byproducts of oil. Regenerated fibres- a combination of chemicals and cellulose waste
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How are yarns made? What are the two different methods?
Yarns are made by spinning and twisting fibres together. The worsted system produces smooth yarn and the woolen system produces hairy yarn
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What are the two ways in which fibres are spun?
The S twist (anticlockwise) and the Z twist (clockwise) - (more complex yarns combine equal amounts of each to prevent distortion.
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What are the different types of yarn?
Spun yarn, multi-filament yarn, mono-filament yarn, assembled yarn, folded yarn, plied yarn, complex yarn, fancy yarn
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What are the main properties of knitted fabrics?
Elastic- furthered by adding elastane, warm- furthered by a finishing process called napping or brushing giving the fabric a fluffy surface
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Weft knitted fabrics...
have horizontal (left to right) rows of knitted yarn, have horizontal ribs on the wrong side, have V-shaped loops on the right side, have interlocking loops above and below each row holding the fabric together - includes polyester and single jersey
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Warp knitted fabrics...
have interlocking loops or chains that run vertically down the fabric, can only be machine made, less elastic and firmer, don't usually ladder, include lightweight fabrics like lace and nets and heavy fabrics like terry toweling and velour
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What are the properties of woven fabrics?
Fray easily when cut, strongest along the straight grain, lack elasticity and are stronger and firmer the closer the weave
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Due to the way a woven fabric is constructed, what does it have?
A selvedge which is an edge that won't fray and a bias which is a diagonal or cross grain
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Name 5 different types of weave
Plain, Twill, Satin, Jacquard and Pile
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Describe: Plain Weave
The simplest weave which creates an interlocking pattern where the weft yarns pass over and under the warp yarns and examples include polyester, cotton and calico
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Describe: Twill Weave
This creates a diagonal pattern and the weft yarns pass over and under either 2 or 4 warp yarns and examples include denim and garbedine
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Describe: Satin Weave
This creates a smooth and shiny fabric where the weft yarns over and under 4-7 warp yarns, it is often used for furnishings and an example is damask
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Describe: Jacquard Weave
This creates a complex woven fabric which is made on a specialist loom - a jacquard loom controlled by computer- which produces expensive high quality fabrics, products include rich furnishings and formal wear like wedding waistcoats
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Describe: Pile Weave
This creates a raised surface made of upright loops, examples include velvet and corduroy
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What are non-woven fabrics?
These are made of raw fibres- they are made either using chemicals to mat the fibres together, using heat to bond the fabrics or stitching them together in layers
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What are the properties of non-woven fabrics?
They have no grain, they don't stretch or fray easily, they are not as strong or flexible as knitted or woven fabrics and are also permeable
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Card 2

Front

What are the three main groups of fibre?

Back

Natural- from animals or plants. Synthetic- man-made from byproducts of oil. Regenerated fibres- a combination of chemicals and cellulose waste

Card 3

Front

How are yarns made? What are the two different methods?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the two ways in which fibres are spun?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the different types of yarn?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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