Intelligence

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"a general ability which involves mainly the education of relations and correlates" is whose definition of intelligence?
Spearman, 1904
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"the ability to judge well, to understand well, to reason well" is whose definition of intelligence?
Binet and Simon, 1905
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"the capacity to form concepts and grasp their significance" is whose definition of intelligence?
Terman, 1916
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Who is considered to be the 'forefather' of intelligence?
Sir Francis Galton
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If you respond well to large amounts of sensory information then you are considered to have what kind of intelligence levels?
High
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What was Alfred Binet asked to do in 1904?
Devise a test for the mentally subnormal French children
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What does the Binet-Simon scale test, and when was it developed?
Intelligence, 1905
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Who developed the Stanford-Binet test, and when was it developed?
Terman, 1916
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What were the Alpha and Beta tests used for?
Intelligence testing for army recruitment
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Describe the Alpha tests:
8 different tests of intelligence designed for those who were literate
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How many people were Yerkes' tests performed on and what was the result?
1.75 million poeple were tested but there was very little impact on the war effort
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What factors make up Spearman's model of intelligence?
1. Specific abilities 2. General intelligence
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What is W.A.I.S and when was it created?
Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale, 1955
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What is W.I.S.C and when was it created?
Weschler (intelligence) Scale for Children, 1955
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What are Thurstone's seven primary abilities?
1. Associative memory 2. Number 3. Perceptual Speed 4. Reasoning 5. Space 6. Verbal comprehension 7. Word fluency
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What factors make up Cattel's multi-factor model?
1. Crystallised intelligence 2. Fluid intelligence
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Define crystallised intelligence:
Stored information and cultural influences
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Define fluid intelligence:
How abstract relational problems are solved, irrespective of cultural underpinnings
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What type of intelligence increases throughout the lifespan?
Crystallised intelligence
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How many factors make up Garder's multiple intelligence theory?
8
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What are the factors that make up Gardner's multiple intelligence theory?
1. Verbal linguistic 2. Logical 3. Bodily-kinaesthetic 4. Visual 5. Musical-rhythmic 6. Interpersonal 7. Intra-personal 8. Naturalistic
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When did Galton begin to study the heritability of intelligence?
1865
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"The Origin of Species" was written by who? What idea is explored throughout the text?
Charles Darwin- the idea that species gradually evolve through natural selection
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What was Galton, 1869 investigating?
The possibility that children inherited their intelligence from their parents
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Describe 1st degree relatives:
1. Parents, children, and siblings 2. share 50% of genes
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Describe 2nd degree relatives
1. Grand-parents, grand-children, aunts, uncles, nieces, nephews 2. share 25% of genes
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Describe 3rd degree relatives
1. Great grand-parents, great grand-children, cousins 2. share 12.5% of genes
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What is the connections between eminence and degrees of relationship?
The number of eminent relatives of an eminent person is greater for 1st degree relationships than 2nd degree
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How did Glton find evidence for the heritability of intelligence?
By studying the obituaries of The Times and identifying the ancestry of eminent men
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Galton, 1874 did what with regards to the heritability of intelligence?
Surveyed 190 fellows of The Royal Society
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What is The Royal Society?
A highly prestigious scientific society dedicated to establishing the truth of scientific matters through experiment
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What was the purpose of Galton, 1874 surveying The Royal Society?
To find out if members achievements and interests in Science were caused by their natural make-up (nature) or their environment (nurture)
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What is a phenotype?
Any outward manifestation of an individual (e.g. physical attractiveness, behaviour, intelligence)
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What did Plomin, 2004 wish to assess?
the extent to which any phenotype is passed on as a result of genes
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What does it mean if there is low variability between a parent and child?
They are similar in a particular characteristic
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If the proportion of shared variance of a behaviour is low, what can be said of parent and child?
They differ strongly in that particular behaviour
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What is h^2?
1. the average of genetic heritability 2. the average estimate of the proportion of variance for intelligence thought to be accounted for by genetic factors across a population
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What is additive assumption?
The idea that there are only two dimensions that determine heritability of any behaviour
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What factors make up additive assumption?
1. Genetics 2. Environment
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What is the equation for finding the environmental contribution for intelligence?
100%-h^2
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How did Plomin, 2004 wish to explore the heritability of intelligenece?
By concentrating on the similarities and differences between populations of individuals to assess the relative influence of their shared genes on intelligence
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What is a criticism of family studies?
Using observation, interview, or questionnaire measures presents a problem because some similarities in personalities might be caused by environmental influence
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Define identical twins:
Monozygotic twins are formed when a single egg is fertilised to form one zygote, but the zygote then divides into two separate embryos; the embryos then develop into foetuses sharing the same womb
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Define fraternal twins:
Dizygotic twins usually occur when two fertilised eggs are implanted into the uterine wall at the same time; two zygotes are formed
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Describe Bouchard's Minnesota study of twins reared apart:
Research involved the medical and psychological assessment of identical (MZ) and fraternal (DZ) twins separated in early life and reared apart; their intelligence was also assessed
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Ridley, 1999 mainly included the findings of whose meta-analysis?
Bouchard and McGue, 1981
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Bouchard and McGue, 1981 did a meta-analysis on how many studies?
111
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Define the concordance rate of IQ:
the presence of the same intelligence level between two individuals
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What is the concordance rate of IQ for the same person tested twice?
87%
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What is the concordance rate of IQ for identical twins reared together?
86%
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What is the concordance rate of IQ for identical twins reared apart?
76%
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What is the concordance rate of IQ for fraternal twins reared together?
55%
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What is the concordance rate of IQ for biological siblings reared together?
47%
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What is the concordance rate of IQ for parents and children living together?
31%
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What is the concordance rate of IQ for parents and children living apart?
31%
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What is the concordance rate of IQ for biological siblings reared apart?
24%
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What is the concordance rate of IQ for adopted children living together?
0%
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What is the concordance rate of IQ for unrelated people living apart?
0%
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Card 2

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"the ability to judge well, to understand well, to reason well" is whose definition of intelligence?

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Binet and Simon, 1905

Card 3

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"the capacity to form concepts and grasp their significance" is whose definition of intelligence?

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Card 4

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Who is considered to be the 'forefather' of intelligence?

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Card 5

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If you respond well to large amounts of sensory information then you are considered to have what kind of intelligence levels?

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