Human growth and development

what are all the stages of life and their ages
infancy 0-2 Childhood 3-8 Adolescence 9-18 Adulthood 19-64 Old age 65+
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infancy physical characteristics
experience of transformation in apperance, gain weight quickly and get taller quickly (head downwards (cephalocaudal) middle outwards (proximodistal) )
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infancy intellectual characteristics
-can only repond using senses - sensory stage of life as thought by Jean Paige
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Jean Piaget
a swiss Psychologist : studied and wrote cognitive development. claimed that infants learn about the world by using their senses hence 'sensori and physical activity hence 'motor'
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infancy Emotional characteristics
- grow an 'attachment' to parents and care givers - try to develop a 'bonding' with parents and other people - lack of attacment or boding may lead feelings of insecurity and difficulties in forming and maintining relationships after in life
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infant attachment patterns
-indiscriminate attachment up to 6 months : anayone can hold the baby hoever it will protest whoever is holding them when put down to sleep
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infant attachment patterns
-specific attachment 7-12 moths: between arent and show fear to strangers
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infant attachment patterns
Multiple attachment 12 months onwards: broaden in attachments which includes other close relatives and people whom the baby sees frequently
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infancy social chracteristics
-grow a bond with others
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firt used by Arnold Gessel in 1925 to describe a predictable sequence of changes that occur in the human body
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childhood physical characteristics
point of life where a person develops the quickest 2-3 inch growth a year and 6lb weight gain a year
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childhood intellectual characteristics
-able t imagine things in a sophisticated manner -develp concrete operations allowing them to understand objects and their relations in the world such as addtion and substraction
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childhood intellectual characteristics
chilldren first develop the ability to use symbols which allow them to ply in a more sophistcated manner. for example a broom becomes a horse and a doll represents mummy
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childhood emotional characteristics
increase in number of relations - greater degree of indepence from paents
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childhood emotinal characteristics
between the ages of 5-6 children understand teir sex and know that it is constant. this is known as Gender constancy
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Gender constancy
the notion that is person's sex (mae or female) is fixed and will not change
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childhood social characeristics
primary socialisation plays a key role as parents teach the children the norms and values- the reinforcement and demostartion of appropriate social skills
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primary socialisation
a social process provided in the family involving the teacing and learning of social attitudes, values and the forms of behaviour acceptable in wider society
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secondary socialisation
socialisation that occurs ouside the family- typically influenced by friends, peer groups, work colleagues and other significant adults
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Adolesence Physical characteristics
- puberty hits - hips widen breats develop, facial hair comes in, depening of voice, growth spurt hormonse are secreted from edocrine glands
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adolesence intellectual characteristics
-Abstract thinking allowing them to think of situatiions they hve't expereinced yet -use foresight to predict possible consequences -empathise -contemplate the future - understand the nature of human relationships
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Hellen Bee 1994
suggested that most peple don't need to use abstract thinking in their pesonal or working lives.
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Abstract thinking
high-levels thinkin ability that enables a person to think about issues, problems or sitatuions that are hypothetical
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adolesece emotional characteristics
-search for sef-concept -coping with puberty -
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Erik Erikson 1960
put forward the theory that the mains social and emotional challenge, or crisis of adolesence was based on establishing a coherent sens of self
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adolescence social characteristics
find comfort from friends rather than family - builds autonomy (freedom) from parents but also needs to maintain a sense of relatedness
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Friendships in adolesence
-functional independence - dietary and dressing choices - attitudinl independece- developing own values and beliefs - emotionl independence- non-parental soruce of approval, intimacy and emotionl support
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Friendship in adolesence
conflictul independence resenment from anger, recognising separeteness from parents without feeling or proviking guilt, being comfortable with being diffrent from parents
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adulthood physical characteristic
-reach physical maturity - point of physical peak - less stregnth and stamina - women hit menopause
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Adulthood intellectual characteristics
-less effective memory - some start a family and get married / find a partner -
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Nancy Denney 1982
Developed a model of change, shows how human cognitive perfromance rises, then falls as you age. Also showed that middle adulthood a person's cognitive ability can continue to develop where intellectual task highly practiced skills/ specific learning
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adulthood emotional characteristcs
-laving home -finding a partner baised on external characteristics , attitudes and beliefs and role fit -becoming a parent brings role strain
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adulthood social characteristics
- shed of life roles as people age -the roles that remain are less complex and ussulaly entail fewer duties
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cognitive perfomance
ability to use thinking and memory skills
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role strain
the pressure and difficulties that may result from the conflicting demand of a person's diffrent social roles (such as worker and parent)
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Genes Inheritance and human development
-humans are made up of 23 chromosomes from the mother and 23 from the farther - genes create DNA (Deoxyribonucliec acid) - the DNA hold coded information
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Genes Inheritance and human development
-Dna is presented in a double helix and within those are chromosomes. -a full set of chromosomes are called genotype
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short stetched of DNA ribbon located in chromosomes
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long strands or packets of DNA
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a sex cell, either a spermatozoon (male) or an ovum (female)
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the full complement of chromosomes in a human body cell contaiing the genetic characteritics of an individual
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the biological transmission of both physical and mental characteristics from parents to their offspring
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the importance of social influences
-'social factors' generally reffer to the different social structures and processes that organise peopple's lives and affect their expereince in a particular society e.g Family Education system
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social structures
social formations hat are relatively permanent features of society. they exist and survive beyond the individuals who form them.
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social 'rules' that establish what people expect, and what is expected of them, in different situations
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idas or beliefs that are viewed positively or are thought to be important by those who hold them
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social class
system of clasifying people according to income, occuption and social prestige
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way of life of a society or of a social group within a broader society
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combinaton of attitudes, habits or behaviours that have a ignificant influence on the way a person lives and exepreinces their daily life.
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the process of taking in and absorbing nutrients, the process of being nourished
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Naturally occuring chemical subsances found in the food we eat. they include carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals
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substance misuse
umbrella tem for problems associated with excessive alchohol consumption and non-medical use of prescribed and illegal drugs
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P- Improves stamina and strength, ruduces blood pressure and weight I- stimulates thinking and planning skills E- increase self-esteem and confidence S- develops team work ad cooperation skills, provides a way of meeting others
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


infancy physical characteristics


experience of transformation in apperance, gain weight quickly and get taller quickly (head downwards (cephalocaudal) middle outwards (proximodistal) )

Card 3


infancy intellectual characteristics


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Card 4


Jean Piaget


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Card 5


infancy Emotional characteristics


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