HEALTH & SOCIAL

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P.I.E.S.

Physical Development - physical growth, development of motor skills and puberty.

Intellectual Development - growing understanding of the world and experiences throughout life.

Emotional Development - growth in the ability to know and express their emotions and of others.

Social Development - relationships and interaction with others.

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LIFE STAGES

Infancy - Infant - 0-3 years.

Childhood - Child - 4-8 years.

Adolescence - Adolescent - 9-18 years.

Adulthood - Adult - 19-65 years.

Late Adulthood - Older Adult - 66+ years.

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KEYWORDS (INFANCY)

Attachment - An affection towards somone or something.

Primary Care Giver - Someone who gives the most care to the infant and spends the most time with them, e.g.the infants mother or father.

Solitary Play - When a child is playing independantly.

Parallel Play - When a child is playing independantly but in a similar way to another child.

Co-operative Play - When a child plays with another child.

Self-concept - A person's individual assessment of their status in society (how you see yourself).

Self-esteem - Respect for oneself (how you feel about yourself).

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KEYWORDS (GENETICS)

Nucleus - The part of a cell which contains genetic information (chromosomes).

Chromosomes - Long thin threadlike structures found in the nucleus of a cell. Chromosomes carry                           the genes.

Structural - Proteins which are used to build cells.

D.N.A. - Deoxyribonucleic Acid. The chemical that makes up chromosomes.  DNA carriesgenetic              code.

Protein - Chemicals in living things that are polymers made by joining together amino acids.

Genes - A section of DNA giving the instructions for a cell about how to make one kind of protein.

Enzymes - A protein that catalyzes chemical reactions in living things.

Gamete - A sex cell, either spermatazoon (male) or an ovum (female).

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KEYWORDS (GENETICS) cont..

Genotype - The full complement of chromosomes in a human body cell containing the genetic                        characteristics of an individual.

Heredity - The biological transmission of both physical and mental characteristics from parents to                offspring.

Unifactorial Disorder - a genetic disease.

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UNIFACTORIAL DISORDERS - AUTOSOMAL DISORDER

Down's (Downs') Syndrome 

This is caused by an extra chromosome on the 21st pair.

It can affect human growth and development by causing:

  • heart disease; 
  • deafness;
  • narrowing of intestines;
  • narrowing of arteries;
  • neck/joint problems;
  • increased risk of general infections.
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UNIFACTORIAL DISORDERS - COLOUR BLINDNESS

Always inherited from the mother gene.

Colour blindness has very little affect on an individuals growth and deveolopment, however it does affect everyday life. 

One of the common color vision defects is the red-green deficiency which is present in about 8 percent of males and 0.5 percent of females of Northern European ancestry.

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UNIFACTORIAL DISORDERS - DUCHENNE'S MUSCULAR DYSTR

This is a sex linked disorder that is caused by mutation of the gene that makes dystrophin which is linked to muscle development.

It can affect human growth and development because it deteriorates the muscle fibres.

This disorder can cause thinning of the bones, joint and spinal complications, chest and breathing complications and heart problems.

The life expectancy of someone with this disorder is 27 years.

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UNIFACTORIAL DISORDERS - HAEMOPHILIA

This disorder affects males only but females can be carriers.

It is caused by a lack of protein known as Factor VIII.

It means that blood cannot clot and therefore most minor wounds can lead to endless bleeding.

It can affect human growth and development as it causes deformities in knees and ankle joints and can cause painful arthritis.

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KEYWORDS (SOCIAL FACTORS)

Culture - A way of life of a society or of a social group within a broader society.

Norms - Social 'rules' that establish what people expect/what is expected of them, in different situations.

Peer Group - Typically, a group of friends of approximatly the same age; more generally, a group that a person identifies with and maybe influenced by.

Primary Socialisation - Social process carried out within the family, involving the teaching and learning of social attitudes/values and forms of behaviour that are acceptable in wider society.

Social Class - System of classifing people according to income/occupatuion/social prestige.

Social Processes - Forms of activity or social practice engaged in by members of a society. Primary socialisation is an example of a social process that occurs within the family.

Social Structures - Social formations that are relativly permanent features of society. Exist and survive beyond the individuals who form them. E.g. The family and education systems.

Values - Ideas/beliefs that are viewed positively or are thought to be important by those who hold them

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