Human Geography

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Stage 1
high birth rate, high death rate - Bangladesh
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Stage 2
high birth rate, falling death rate - Sri Lanka
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Stage 3
Falling birth rate, low death rate - China
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Stage 4
Low birth rate, Low death rate - USA
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Stage 5
death rate exceeds birth rate - Hungary
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Characteristics of stage 1?
rural, pre-industrial society, subsistence farming, lack of clean water
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Characteristics of stage 2?
Economic development, increasing wealth, improved food supply, better sanitation
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Characteristics of stage 3?
increasing urbinisation, smaller families, children economic burden
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Characteristics of stage 5?
birth rate falls below replacement level, ageing population and increaseing deoendancy ratio
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Strengths of DTM
universal, change over time, easy, comparitive, chronological, dynamic
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Weaknesses of DTM
eurocentric, doesnt account gov intervention (China) or migration
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Broad-Based Pyramid Example
Pakistan
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Broad-Based pyramid reasons
youthful populations, progressive, STAGE 2, rapid pop growth
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Broad-Based Decription
wide base, concave, narrow apex, baby-boom
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Constrictive Example
USA / Germany - STAGE 3
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Constrictive reasons
lower number of people, ageing pop, longer life-expectancy
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Constrictive Description
Regressive. Narrow base that broadens with age
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Migration in South Africa
males migrate more than females giving unbalanced sex ratio
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Migration in south America
females more likely to migrate
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LEDC population change
youthful populations with between 30-45% 15 or younger
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Rural Migration
young adults, fewer babies, ageing population (Eastbourne)
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Urban Migration
influx young adults, increased demand on housing
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Dependancy Ratio - UK
51% as of 2010
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Depopulation Example
Barra in Outer Herbrides (stage 2)
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Increasing Population Example
Dar-es-salaam, East African Port (stage 3)
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Economically Motivated Migration
Poland
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Year Poland added to A8?
2004 with Lativa, Lithuanie and Hungary
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Number who applied to work in UK
2006, 447,000 applied and 62% Polish
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How big ethnic minority are they?
3rd largest in UK
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Why did they leave Poland?
Unemployment at 18% and youth unemploy at 40%
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Why did they come to Britain?
unemploy at 5%, high-demand semi-skilled, 607,000 vacancies
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Who moved?
80% 18-35
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pessimistic views
Malthus and Club of Rome
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Malthus=
population-exponentially. resources-arithmetically
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Club of Rome built around (1)
pop and finite resources, accelerating industrialisaton, rapid pop growth
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Club of Rome built around (2)
depletion of non-renew resources and deteriorating environment
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Optimistic Views
Boserup and Simon
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Boserup=
'neccesity is the mother of invention'
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Simon=
'supply of natural resources infinite, our only limit is human brainpower'
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Ehrlich and Simon 1980 wager
Prices fell by 57%, Simon correct!
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Stage 2

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high birth rate, falling death rate - Sri Lanka

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Stage 3

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Stage 4

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Card 5

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Stage 5

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