The definition of percolation
The downward movement of water within the rock under the soil surface
1 of 47
Equation to calculate water balance
precipitation = streamflow + evapotranspiration +/- changes in stores
2 of 47
Define soil moisture surplus
when inputs exceed outputs, so the ground is saturated
3 of 47
Define recharging
when the amount of soil moisture is returned to field capacity
4 of 47
Define field capacity
the normal level of water held by the soil
5 of 47
Define soil utlisation
when the ground is dry due to outputs>inputs
6 of 47
Define infiltration capacity
The spped as which water can pass through the ground surface, in mm/hr
7 of 47
Name 4 human factors affecting discharge
deforestation, urbanisation, flood defences, irrigation and drains
8 of 47
Name 4 physical factors affecting discharge
Soil type, geology, precipitqtion, litter layer, slope, deciduous vegetation
9 of 47
Equation to calculate hydraulic radius
cross sectional area/wetted perimeter
10 of 47
Define capacity
the amount of load a river can carry
11 of 47
Define competence
the diameter of the largest particl that the river can carry
12 of 47
Define flocculation
the chemical settlin of silts and clays to form mudflats
13 of 47
Name 3 landforms created in the upper stages
waterfalls, gorges, interlocking spurs, v-shaped valley
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Name 2 landforms created in the middle stages
meanders, oxbow lakes, U-shaped valleys
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Name 3 landforms created in the lower stages
delta, estuary, floodplain
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When does the 'ideal graded profile' occur?
When inputs and outputs are balanced, and the depostion and erosion are balanced
17 of 47
What does the Hjulstrom curve do?
Shows the relationship between particle size, velocity, deposition, transportation and erosion
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Name 2 issues with the hjulstrom curve
It should use the velocity at the base of the channel where the material is located, the curve refers to a smooth channel where as most are irregular, water flow is naturally variable while the curve suggests a regular flow
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Name the 2 lines on the Hjustrom curve
Critical erosion curve (top) and critical deposition line (bottom)
20 of 47
3 place specific details of the High Force Waterfall
The River Tees, Northern England, 21.5m in height, 700m long gorge, 30m wide, Caboniferous limestone and Dolerite
21 of 47
3 place specific details of rapids
The Des Moines rapids, Mississippi river, 2.34 feet mean depth
22 of 47
Define helical flow
the corkscrew motion of water3
23 of 47
Example of potholes
The Devil's Ketlle, Minnesota
24 of 47
3 place specific details of an oxbow lake
Lake Chico, Mississippi river, 20 miles long, 3/4 of a mile wide and cut off 600 years ago
25 of 47
The 3 types of deposit that make up deltas (from largest to smallest)
Topset, foreset, bottomset
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3 place specific details of an arcuate delta
The Nile, cover 240km, around 160 in length
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3 place specific details of a cuspate delta
The Ebro Delta, Spain, 320km covered
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3 place specific details of a Birds foot delta
The Mississippi delta, 12000km, consists of 6 smaller deltas
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Desription of an arcuate delta
fan shaped, many short active distributaries
30 of 47
Desription of a Birds foot delta
river dominated fewer distributaries, very fine material
31 of 47
Describe a cuspate delta
tooth shaped, one distributary, wave action hitting flat coastline head on
32 of 47
Define alluvium
silts and clays deposited by the river (make up floodplains)
33 of 47
2 place specific details of levees
Mississippi river, 3200km
34 of 47
Define coagulate
stick together (in reference to sediment), caused by chemical reactions that take place when fresh and sea water meet
35 of 47
Define entrainment
in transportation by the river
36 of 47
What causes regrading?
A negative change in base level -> increases the potential energy of a river -> allows it to revive its erosive energy
37 of 47
Name of the ice age dyrin which Britains land was depressed
38 of 47
2 changes that can cause rejuvenation
isostatic uplift, eustatic fall in sea level
39 of 47
Name the landforms created by rejuvenation
knickpoints, river terraces, incised meanders (entrenched and ingrown)
40 of 47
Describe a knickpoint
A waterfall created to sudden isostatic/eustatic chnage in base level
41 of 47
Describe a river terrace and give an example
Remnants of former floodplains, e.g the Taplow and Boyn Hill terraces in London
42 of 47
Difference between ingrown and entrenched incised meanders
Ingrow are asymmetrical, less rapid incision, Entrenched are symmetrical, more rapid incision
43 of 47
Give an example of an entrenched meander
River Wear at Durham
44 of 47
Give an example of an ingrown meander
River Wye at Tintern Abbey
45 of 47
What are pools in reference to meanders?
Areas of deeper water and greater erosion located at the bends
46 of 47
What are riffles?
Areas of shallower water caused by deposition located in the straighter section between bends
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Equation to calculate water balance


precipitation = streamflow + evapotranspiration +/- changes in stores

Card 3


Define soil moisture surplus


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Define recharging


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Define field capacity


Preview of the front of card 5
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