How has the pattern changed?
Growth of tourism -
Cheap affordable travel - twin bodied jet engine could carry more people, therefore air travel becomes cheaper and more affordable because real wages went up and people had more disposable income. ECONOMIC
Expansion if budget airlines eg Easy Jet, and the introduction of reward schemes eg Air Miles if you travel a lot - ECONOMIC
Introduction of holidays with pay - by law. POLITICAL
Greater likelihood of terrorist attacks in certain destinations eg Syria - POLITICAL
Media such as tv programmes for example the 1970's film 'out of Africa' increased peoples interests in other cultures SOCIAL
Increase in the average number of days of paid leave after 1945 SOCIAL
More people going to hot places, not seaside holidays in Britain, as they are just as cheap and mean gauranteed sunshine.
Growth of tourism and economic development
As economies develop, there is more tourism because
Average wages rise
More disposable income
More leisure time
More aware due to media and marketing
Model of cumulative causation:
Economy growth stimulates demand for tourism, average income up
This demand generates more ec.growth as more money spent on food drink etc
Some businesses expand or form to meet rising demand
New infrastructures built eg roads
More tourism. Multiplier effect creates further growth.
Jobs created, eg construction
Public utilities expanded and more local people have access eg drinking water
More money in economy means more money to invest in schools or hospitals
Social opportunities and problems
Tourists can help to preserve or protect the local culture
Tourism development can increase the range of social facilities for local people
Promotes cultural understanding
Masai Mara -
Tribal groups can sell their souvenirs to tourists and a school water supply - amboseli is being funded by the government from tourist money.
Abandonment of traditional values and practises
Alcoholism and drug abuse
Denying local people access to beaches to provide exclusivity for visitors
African culture subsumed by tourism - inappropriate dressing, beach wear and swim suits are not appropriate for culture. Alcohol, drugs and low moral standards. Sex tourism 'sugar daddy'
Masai Mara -
Tribal group becoming westernised, fabrication of culture. Becoming sedentary.
Economic opportunities and problems
More jobs - multiplier effect
Creates opening for small businesses
Masai Mara - provides jobs. Tours are expensive which brings money into the economy and tourism provides a market for local goods to be sold.
tourist enclave - brings money into the local economy - jobs eg catering (waitresses) transport (taxis) and construction jobs to build hotels.
Lamu - tourist levy, money goes back into the community to spend on training people in local crafts and architecture.
It is seasonal, mainly in school holidays meaning people may be out of employment for the rest of the year.
Sometimes money is spent in hotels which has no benefit to the wider community
Locations become over dependant on tourism
Hotels owned by international companies meaning that money doesn't stay in country
Environmental opportunities and problems
Tourists can take part in activities that help to preserve or protect the environment
Increase awareness of vulnerable environments back home
Tsavo game park-
Helps to protect wild animals and scenery because tourist groups are small
Drain local resources
Tourism can consume scarce water supplies eg golf courses
Masai Mara -
Noise is intruding the peace and naturalness, scares animals eg rhinos and gazelles and zebras. Interrupts lions mating habits. Park becomes like a funfair - intrusive. Trucks dig up the ground causing soil erosion and vehicles get as close as they can to the animals to get tips.
Increased pressure on food/water supply and loss of farmland. Pollution due to travel. Boats dropping anchors damage the coral.
Zero carbon luxury resort.
Going to be built in Zanzibar
Aims to have no negative environmental impact and be sustainable.
Bikes and electric cars provides - saves petrol therefore carbon emissions
Hot water pipes run beneath solar panels
Water supply from rain and sea water and stored in a tank, saves water
Infinity pool filtered naturally by reeds, saves electricity
Staffed and built by locals, meaning they gain experience and can get a better job elsewhere
Sources local produce which keeps small businesses in business - economically sustaiable
Building built from local earth - no transportation needed
Sustainable tourism - today's population can have a good quality life without compromising the needs of the future to be able to earn a living from the same region
Super luxury resort, expensive £5000 for 7 nights, can only arrive by small aircraft
Advantage as it keeps tourist numbers down
11 luxury villas along Coast which all blend into natural environment and local culture
Built from natural resources, pollution from transport at a minimum
Inside only biodegradable products are used
Food used is from the jungle cooked by a top chef - local culture not lost
Main course is whatever was caught at sea
Overfishing not allowed, if baby fish or ifs not suitable for human consumption are caught they have to be thrown back - environmentally sustainable
Tourist activities are sustainable too, eg scuba diving - tourists pick litter up or monitor turtle numbers. The spa also only uses natural resources eg mango
Lamu - north of Mombasa
Small and inaccessible
Made to blend in, not dominate ensuring tourism is socially sustainable
Developments are all small scale with few bars and limited alcohol
Strict dress code as to not offend locals
Main focus is to preset local crafts and architecture , no building above trees line and they are all built in local style and colour of white.
Economically sustainable - tourist levy means that all money goes into the local economy
Tsavo game park
Minimal negative social effects, only basic tents and few camps and lodges
Provides jobs as your guides and a market for selling goods
Rainforest area of the mountains of Western Ghats
No plastics or glass allowed in the resort as they're not biodegradable
No cosmetics allowed, instead natural substances are used eg burnt paddi husk for toothpaste
Before leaving tourists are encouraged to plants a tree ensuring that the forest continues to thrive
Ecotourism benefits the local community..
Based in lamu
Provides sustainable ethical tourism that benefits the local community and provides a rewarding experience. Authentic sailing adventure in the Indian Ocean which ensures that money is spent in the local economy not on imported goods and labour.
Money supports schools, they leave a financial contribution for books and desks and are currently raising money for evening lights to be provided to 3 schools.
Also providing a football strip for the local Kisingitni school team.
Pays workers at least double the normal wage and uses and recommends locally owned businesses for buying fish and vegetables or for having repairs done.
Set up in 1997
Wildlife sanctuary and sustainable Eco tourism
Partenered with local communities and raises money to fund and work on projects
Links local schools with uk schools and raises money for classrooms and water tanks. Local people are employed into jobs eg guides.