revision for unit 2


Barriers to H&SC

Barriers are the factors that prevent an individual gaining access to health, social care and early years services. It may be that they do not know about the services available. Individuals may face more than on barrier to accessing services.

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Physical barriers

These are  objects that prevent an individual from getting where they must go e.g. a wheelchair user is unable to enter a building because the doorway is too narrow or there are steps so they can’t get to the entrance.

Psychological barriers

This barrier affects the way an individual thinks about a service e.g. it may be they have a fear of the dentist.  If an individual feels unwell but they are worried about finding out what is wrong. They may not seek help from their GP.

Financial barrier

This to do with how much it might cost to access a service.   If the health, social care or early years service the individual is trying to access is some distance away they may not be able to afford the transport costs to get there.  If a patient  has to pay for medical prescriptions they may not be able to afford it so they do not get the medicine they need.

Geographical barrier

Some individuals live near health, social care and early years services and others may live some distance away.   For those individuals who do not live near the services they may find that the buses in the area do not run at a convenient time to get to an appointment.  A patient may need to have specialist treatment which is many miles away and finds it difficult to get there.  Finding it difficult to travel  to the services because of distance is a geographical barrier.  Some individuals may find that due to their mobility problem they cannot walk a short distance to the health, social care and early years services.  

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Cultural and language barriers

If the information (signs, leaflets, posters) about  health, social care and early years services is in English only then those with a different first language will not be able to find out about the service.  If the information uses specialist language the individual may not understand it.  They may become anxious or worried about the service.

Resource barrier

Sometimes the health, social care and early years services an individual needs to access may not be available due staff shortages  or a lack of money for the service.  If there is a large demand for a service then people may have to wait until there is sufficient money to pay for all those that need the service.  Also, there may be a high demand for vaccination against a disease  and there is not enough vaccine available for all those that need it.  So, people may have to wait until sufficient vaccine has been produced e.g. swine flu vaccine.

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Community Care Assessment-

1.Physical, mental impairment or illness 2.Not being able to achieve at least 2 of the following: managing and maintaining nutrition; maintaining personal hygiene; managing toilet needs; being appropriately clothed; being able to make use of the adult’s home safely; maintaining a habitable home environment; developing and maintaining family or other personal relationships; accessing and engaging in work, training, education or volunteering; making use of necessary facilities or services in the local community including public transport, and recreational facilities or services; and  carrying out any caring responsibilities the adult has for a child.

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What are policies and procedures?


Detailed descriptions of the approach, and often the specific procedures that should be followed, in caring for service users.


Written instructions that outline the expected and required routines that care staff must follow in specific situations, for example reporting accidents or administering medicines, in order to implement agreed policies.  

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Types of policies

Complaints Policy Safeguarding policy Equality and diversity policy Health and safety policy Medication policy Disclosing and Barring Service (DBS) Referral policy

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Complaints policy

You can expect to be treated with courtesy, respect and fairness at all times. However, if you do not show the same respect back, the policy might outline that they can cease to talk to you and you can take your complaint onwards. It will outline what the procedures are to complain- how should you complain, in writing? By phone? Who should you complain to? It will talk about the stages of complaint and the time frame you should expect your complaints to be dealt with by. 

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Safeguarding policy

The policy will identify and respond to concerns regarding the safeguarding and protection of children, young people and vulnerable adults. Who is the person in charge? How do you go about reporting a concern? Promoting multi-agency working-you must give information to the right people (Remember Victoria Climbè) Inspection rules The employees roles and responsibilities in this

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Equality and Diversity policy

This policy sets out the services approach to equality and diversity. It aims to promote equality and diversity and by promoting a culture that actively values differences and recognizes that people from different backgrounds and experiences can bring valuable insights to the workplace and enhance the way we work. Provide equal opportunities throughout employment including in the recruitment, training and development of employees to stop discrimination from happening. They will outline protected characteristics such as sex, sexuality, race, disability etc.

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Health and safety policy

Describing how you will manage health and safety in your service will let your staff and others know about your commitment to health and safety. It should clearly say who does what, when and how. If you have fewer than five employees you don’t have to write down your health and safety policy. The policy does not need to be complicated or time-consuming. It should include a section for your risk assessment so that you can record everything in one document. The risk assessment should identify the risks in your workplace and how you will plan to minimise them A policy will only be effective if the staff follow it and review it regularly.

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Medication policy

Do they aim to promote self-medication and independence? Where should medicines be stored? Who is in charge of making sure they are stored correctly and do not go out of date? Policies are made in accordance with legislation and regulatory bodies How should medicines be administered? Who has the qualifications to administer them. For example, you would not get someone on their first day to pop a suppository up an elderly patients bum! Revalidation- keep up to date with medicines/ how to administer them.

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DBS policy

On the 29 May 2013, legislation came into force that allows certain old and minor cautions and convictions to no longer be subject to disclosure. In addition, employers will no longer be able to take an individual’s old and minor cautions and convictions into account when making decisions all cautions and convictions for specified serious violent and sexual offences, and other specified offences of relevance for posts concerned with safeguarding children and vulnerable adults, will remain subject to disclosure. In addition, all convictions resulting in a custodial sentence, whether or not suspended, will remain subject to disclosure, as will all convictions where an individual has more than one conviction recorded Everyone who applies has to be treated fairly. You cannot put someone's application in the bin because they have a conviction- you need to consider whether they are right for the job. Ian Huntley (Soham murders) – you need to be checked Someone needs to be responsible for these checks

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Care planning

A care plan sets out how care and support needs will be met.

Service users should be fully involved in the preparation of the care plan, and anyone else requested should also get a written copy. The care plan must set out:

the needs identified by the assessment, whether, and to what extent, the needs meet the eligibility criteria, the needs that the authority is going to meet, and how it intends to do so, for a person needing care, for which of the desired outcomes care and support could be relevant, for a carer, the outcomes the carer wishes to achieve, and their wishes around providing care, work, education and recreation where support could be relevant, the personal budget,information and advice on what can be done to reduce the needs in question, and to prevent or delay the development of needs in the future

Care and support should help them to:

live independently  have as much control over their life as possible  participate in society on an equal level, with access to employment and a family life  have the best possible quality of life  keep as much dignity and respect as possible

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The care planning cycle

Assess the client’s needs

Plan, and where possible, agree the most appropriate care

Implement the care plan

Monitor the effectiveness of the plan and then review and evaluate the effectiveness of the plan

Amend the plan as necessary

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How to empower people

Empowerment of individuals and the care value base

Empowerment means giving individuals enough information to enable them to make informed decisions and make choices about their life. It lies at the heart of the care value base (devised by the Care Sector Consortium in 1992), in order to provide a common set of ethical principles and values for health and social care workers.

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Care value base

The care value base is now more commonly known as ‘principles andvalues’. Principles and values describe the kind of attitude towards care you would appreciate if you were being cared for yourself. Creating a positive care environment requires health and social care workers to adopt principles and values, which become a ‘way of being and working’. Principles and values include recognizing and acknowledging the following points: empowerment of individuals promotion of choice promotion of rights (to dignity and privacy, safety and security) recognition of preferences involvement of individuals in planning their support respect for diversity, including individual identity, cultural beliefs, moral beliefs and values anti-discriminatory practice maintaining confidentiality.

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Empowerment, as it relates to health care, implies that patient independence may be optimised by helping patients to assert control over their lives. This principle is highlighted in a number of professional and governmental guidelines where it is seen as a vital ingredient in the provision of quality health services. For example, the Code of Professional Conduct emphasisesthat it is the responsibility of nurses to foster patient independence by recognising and respecting their involvement in the planning and delivery of care. Your Guide to the NHS (Department of Health, 2001) broadens the application of empowering care to encompass all health care professions. It suggests not only that services will be shaped around the needs and preferences of each patient but also that access to information on treatment and service performance will be open to all. Despite this emphasis on empowering care, numerous studies show that people in hospitals and institutions are often exposed to circumstances that seem to contradict this principle. This ‘disempowering’ care ranges from mildly negative interactions, such as invading a patient’s privacy or disturbing patients while they are resting, to more severe examples, such as scolding, neglect and physical restraint.

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A2 The responsibilities of people who work in health and social care settings

Understand the day-to-day responsibilities of people who work in health and social care settings, to include:

following policies and procedures in place in the health and social care setting in which they work healing and supporting recovery for people who are ill enabling rehabilitation providing equipment and adaptations to support people to be more independent providing personal care, to include washing, feeding, toileting supporting routines of service users, to include day-to-day family life, education, employment, leisure activities assessment and care and support planning, involving service users and their families.

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Why is regulation important?

Registering - Services have to be registered before it can offer a service. This is because the registration includes checking processes to make sure all safety and care standards have been met. The registration means that the regulators can keep an eye on the service through monitoring them and making sure they follow the correct policies and procedures.

Fulfilling minimum standards - A trained inspector will make informed judgements on the service. They will look at day to day running or the service, complaints made and how they were dealt with, written procedures and protocols. They will then work out whether the service is managed effectively, whether it offers appropriate care and whether the minimum care standards are being delivered. 

Supportive - Guidelines and pathways from the NICE for example can be very informative and help people to understand what needs to be done and why.  Health and Social Care services are constantly changing, this can be very stressful and confusing, so guidelines, training and continuing professional development are all really important in these fields

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Regulatory bodies


Revalidation (Continual professional development) They maintain a register of nurses and midwives allowed to practise in the UK. Standards of personal conduct at work and in leisure time CQC Are the independent regulator of health and adult social care in England. They make sure health and social care services provide people with safe, effective, compassionate, high-quality care and encourage care services to improve. They register care providers. They monitor, inspect and rate services. They take action to protect people who use services. They speak with an independent voice, publishing views on major quality issues in health and social care GMC The GMC are extremely important in deciding what doctors are qualifies to work in this country. They will investigate and wrong doings They promote high standards and ensure that medical education and training reflects the needs of patients, medical students and trainees, and the health service

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Regulatory bodies


Trade union carrying out work on nursing standards , education and practice. Lobby governments and other bodies across the UK to develop, influence and implement policy that improves the quality of patient care. 


Registers The HCPC set the standards- these standards are how registrants' ‘fitness to practise’ is determined. It sets the expectations of behaviour and conduct so that the public know what to expect from the professional.


inspecting maintained schools and academies, some independent schools inspecting childcare, adoption and fostering agencies and initial teacher training publishing reports of our findings so they can be used to improve the overall quality of education and training regulating a range of early years and children’s social care services, making sure they’re suitable for children and potentially vulnerable young people reporting to policymakers on the effectiveness of these services

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Regulatory bodies


make recommendations for professionals, for local authorities and for anyone who provides a health or social care service. They have created different pathways and guidelines to show what the best route of care can be. This creates consistency across all of the different local authorities in England

Public health England

reducing differences between the health of different groups by promoting healthier lifestyles, advising government and supporting action by local government, the NHS and the public protecting the nation from public health hazards preparing for and responding to public health emergencies sharing information and expertise, and identifying and preparing for future public health challenges

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Equality Act

what's included

  • age
  • sex
  • marriage and civil partnerships
  • religion or belief (including lac of belief)
  • pregnancy and maternity
  • sexual orientation
  • disability
  • race
  • gender reassignment
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The Human Rights Act 1998

Right to life Freedom from torture and inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment Freedom of thought, conscience and religion Freedom of expression Access to an education Liberty and security of a person Freedom from slavery, servitude, and forced or compulsory labour Peaceful enjoyment of possessions and protection of property Marry and found a family

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Data protection Act

How the Data Protection Act works

The Data Protection Act was developed to give protection and lay down rules about how data about people can be used. The 1998 Act covers information or data stored on a computer or an organised paper filing system about living people. The basic way it works is by:

setting up rules that people have to follow having an Information Commissioner to enforce the rules

It does not stop companies storing information about people. It just makes them follow rules. Some of the rules are:

Personal data shall be processed fairly and lawfully Personal data shall be obtained only for one or more specified and lawful purposes, and shall not be further processed in any manner incompatible with that purpose or those purposes- basically you have to do what you said you were going to do with the information! Personal data shall be adequate, relevant and not excessive in relation to the purpose or purposes for which they are processed. Personal data shall be accurate and, where necessary, kept up to date. Personal data processed for any purpose or purposes shall not be kept for longer than is necessary for that purpose or those purposes. Personal data shall be processed in accordance with the rights of data subjects under this Act. Appropriate technical and organisational measures shall be taken against unauthorised or unlawful processing of personal data and against accidental loss or destruction of, or damage to, personal data. Personal data shall not be transferred to a country or territory outside the European Economic Area unless that country or territory ensures an adequate level of protection for the rights and freedoms of data subjects in relation to the processing of personal data.

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Being able to follow policies and procedures

Communication skills

Revalidation- have the relevant training to do the job

Know Government schemes/ legislation that can help

Patience/ Interpersonal skills

Providing medication

Providing personal care

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When you are a trainee

Monitor/ shadow more experienced staff to develop knowledge and practice


Having a performance management system

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Specific to a condition



Know how to use the relevant technology

Assess the living environment

Understand the impact of their condition on – social and mental health

Recognise how to spot the signs

Know what money is available to help them

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National Occupational Standards

National Occupational Standards (NOS) describe best practice by bringing together skills, knowledge and values.

They are valuable tools as benchmarks for qualifications as well as for defining roles at work, staff recruitment, supervision and appraisal

You can use NOS in a number of ways. They are particularly useful for managing your workforce and they are also used by awarding organisations to form the basis of qualifications in your industry.

You can use NOS to:

define the job roles of your staff write and review job descriptions measure your staff skills identify training and development needs design and develop training programmes and training materials measure how effective your training is develop your industry’s qualifications

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Religious and Cultural differences


Do not eat beef

Do not normally cut their hair

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Religious and Cultural differences


Do not eat beef

Prefer to wash in running water

Rather use a bidet

Like to be treated by someone of the same sex

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Religious and Cultural differences


Eat Kosher foods

Do not eat pork

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Religious and Cultural differences


Eat Halal products

Do not eat pork

Prefer to wash in running water

Rather use a bidet

Like to be treated by someone of the same sex

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Dietary Restrictions

vegetariansDo not eat fish, meat or meat based products (there are lots of different types though!)

vegans - do not eat any animal related products 

coeliac - cannot eat gluten

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Control of Substances Hazardous to Health

How to dispose of hazardous waste How to protect people from harm Where to store them etc.

Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations

Reporting things such as food poisoning, TB, Rubella etc. and serious injuries Less serious ones need to be put on an accident form and filed.

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