HSC10

How would a GP take a Patient's Temperature?

  • Using a digital thermometer (1)
  • Placed under their tongue or in their ear (1)
  • Leave until the thermometer beeps (1)
  • Or until a reading is taken (1)
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How would a GP perform Percussion?

  • Placing one or two fingers (1)
  • On the patient's chest or back (1)
  • Using their other hand, the GP will tap the fingers (1)
  • While listening to the resulting sound (1)
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How would a GP use a Computer during Diagnosis?

  • To look up the patient's medical history (1)
  • To use a clinical support system (1)
  • To help prescribe treatment (1)
  • To speak to other practitioners/experts (1)
  • To print a prescription (1)
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How can Blood Samples be used to provide Medical I

  • To be tested biochemically (1)
  • To test glucose levels (1)
  • Cholesterol (1)
  • Gas content (1)
  • Blood cell count (1)
  • Presence of microorganisms (1)
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How is Electrocardiography is Carried Out?

  • Performed using electrodes (1)
  • Attached to chest/wrists/ankles (1)
  • Recording electrical activity of the heart (1)
  • A healthy heart produces a normal wave pattern (1)
  • On a monitor screen (1)
  • Abnormal wave patterns indicates dysfunction (1)
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Examples of Diagnostic Imaging Techniques

  • X-rays (1)
  • Contrast x-rays (1)
  • Ultrasound scanning (1)
  • CT scanning (1)
  • MRI scanning (1)
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What is a Screening Test used for?

  • For early detection of certain diseases/disorders (1)
  • To detect diseases where there are no signs/symptoms (1)
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How and When is Amniocentesis Performed?

  • An antiseptic solution is used to clean the abdomen (1)
  • The area where the needle is inserted is numbed with anaesthetic (1)
  • Needle is inserted through the abdomen into uterus (1)
  • Positioned using an ultrasound scan (1)
  • Amniotic fluid extracted (1)
  • Performed at 15/20 weeks into the pregnancy (1)
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How is Glaucoma Performed?

  • Performed by an optical assistant (1)
  • Done using a non-contact tonometer (1)
  • Blows a few puffs of air onto each eye (1)
  • Air bounces back at instrument (1)
  • Giving a measurement of pressure inside each eye (1)

Or

  • Surface of eye numbed with eye drops (1)
  • Fine ***** of paper with dye is touched to side of the eye (1)
  • Slit lamp place in front of eye (1)
  • Chin and forehead is supported to keep head steady (1)
  • Lamp is moved towards the eye until tip of tonometer just touches the cornea (1)
  • Optical assistant records the pressure reading on the instrument (1)
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What is Immunisation?

  • Stimulating an immune response via an infectious agent/virus/pathogen/bacteria (1)
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What is Vaccination?

  • Infection of a dead or weakened pathogen (1)
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What is the Difference between Active and Passive

  • Active immunity is acquired from a vaccination (1)
  • So antibodies are produced against the disease (1)
  • Whereas passive immunity is when antibodies are passed from mother to baby (1)
  • But this immunity is shorter lasting than active (1)
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What causes Measles and how is it Transmitted?

  • Caused by paramyovirus (1)
  • Transmitted by droplets from sneezes from an infected person (1)
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What are the Symptoms of Measles?

  • Tiny greyish-white spots in the mouth and throat (1)
  • Eyes become red and swollen (1)
  • Runny nose and a harsh,dry cough (1)
  • Common cold like symptoms e.g. tiredness (1)
  • Reddish-brown skin rash developing 4 days after exposure (1)
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What are Possible Side Effects of Vaccines?

  • Rash (1)
  • High temperature (1)
  • Loss of appetite (1)
  • Cold like symptoms (1)
  • Tiredness (1)
  • Redness at the site of the injection (1)
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Symptoms of Cholera

  • Severe,watery diarrhoea (1)
  • Vomiting (1)
  • Stomach cramps (1)
  • Dehydration (1)
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Symptoms of Hepatitis A

  • Mild fever (1)
  • Vomiting (1)
  • Sore throat (1)
  • Loss of appetite (1)
  • Fatigue (1)
  • Muscle pain (1)
  • Abdominal pain (1)
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Symptoms of Hepatitis B

  • Flu like symptoms (1)
  • Tiredness (1)
  • General aches and pains (1)
  • Headaches (1)
  • High temperature (1)
  • Loss of appetite (1)
  • Vomiting (1)
  • Diarrhoea (1)
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Symptoms of Typhoid

  • High temperature (1)
  • Headaches (1)
  • Muscle aches (1)
  • Stomach pain (1)
  • Vomiting (1)
  • Loss of appetite (1)
  • Diarrhoea (1)
  • Exhaustion (1)
  • Confusion (1)
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Symptoms of Rabies

  • High temperature (1)
  • Chills (1)
  • Fatigue (1)
  • Problems sleeping (1)
  • Lack of appetite (1)
  • Headaches (1)
  • Irritability (1)
  • Anxiety (1)
  • Sore throat (1)
  • Vomiting (1)
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The Ethical Issues of Treating Disease

  • They have a choice as a patient (a basic human right)
  • Patient choice is empowering
  • They have a right to agree, refuse and delay treatment
  • It is important they look at the benefits and side effects of the treatment
  • They may be responsible for their own ill health
  • Side effects may be worse than benefits
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Why do GPs ask Questions?

  • In order to clarify the problem (1)
  • Discover Sheila's medical history (1)
  • Help make a diagnosis (1)
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What is a Visual Examination?

  • The GP will look at the affect part of the body where possible (1)
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How would a GP use a Stethoscope?

  • The stethoscope channels sounds from a metal dish along two tubes to ears (1)
  • From patient's heart/lungs/chest (1)
  • To identify abnormal noises (1)
  • Eliminates background noise (1)
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How is an Ultrasound Scan Carried Out?

  • Ultrasound scan uses a probe which produces high frequency sound waves (1)
  • These sound waves penetrate through soft tissue (1)
  • Gel is put on the patient's skin (1)
  • The probe is placed on the patient's skin (1)
  • The probe is attached to a receiver that detects the sound waves (1)
  • This is connected to a computer that processes the data from the probe (1)
  • The computer creates an image (1)
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Advantages and Disadvantages of Ultrasound

Advantages

  • No radiation (1)
  • Can be used as a substitue for x-rays (1)
  • Inexpensive (1)

Disadvantages

  • Poorer image compared to other screening techniques (1)
  • Cannot penetrate bone (1) so can't be used to scan the brain (1)
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How is the Blood Test for PKU Performed?

  • Heel ***** (1)
  • Blood sample is taken from baby's heel (1)
  • Blood is collected and sent to lab for analysis (1)
  • Here the levels of amino acid will be measured (1)
  • Tests will be carried out during first week of baby's life (1)
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What is a Mammography Performed?

  • Uses ionising radiation (1)
  • Taken of one breast at a time (1)
  • Breast placed on x-ray machine and gently compressed with a clear plate (1)
  • Two x-rays are taken of each breast at different angles (1)
  • Mammogram viewed as images and examined by radiologist (1)
  • Results discussed with patient (1)
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Diphtheria

  • Corynebacterium diptheriae (1)
  • Bacterial infection (1)
  • Spreads through respiratory droplets (1)
  • Can also be spread by contaminated foods (1)
  • Once infected, toxins from bacteria spread through bloodstream (1)
  • Main symptoms include: high temperature, sore throat and breathing difficulties (1)
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Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

  • Bordetella pertussis (1)
  • Bacterial infection (1)
  • In the lungs and airways (1)
  • Causes a persistent, dry cough (1)
  • Cough makes a whooping noise (1)
  • Spreads through respiratory droplets (1)
  • Main symptoms include: runny nose, raised temperature, vomiting after coughing (1)
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Tetanus

  • C. tetani (1)
  • Bacterial infection (1)
  • Lives in soil/dust/manure (1)
  • Caused when a flesh wound becomes contaminated (1)
  • Untreated may cause death (1)
  • Main symptoms include: spasms, stiffness, lockjaw, difficulty swallowing (1)
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Mumps

  • Contagious viral infection (1)
  • Spreads like a cold (1)
  • Spread through respiratory droplets (1)
  • Main symptoms include: painful swellings at the side of the face, "hamster face" appearance, headaches, joint pain, high temperature (1)
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Rubella

  • Viral infection (1)
  • Transmitted through the air (1)
  • Main symptoms include: red-pink skin rash, swollen glands, cold like symptoms e.g. a runny nose (1)
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What causes Typhoid and how is it Transmitted?

  • Salmonella typhi (1)
  • Contaminated food (1)
  • Contaminated water (1)
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What is a Non-Prescription Drug?

  • Can be bought over the counter (1)
  • Not as strong as prescription drugs (1)
  • Not prescribed by a GP (1)
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Why are not all Drugs taken Orally?

  • Chemical may be damaged by digestion (1)
  • May take too long to be absorbed into the bloodstream (1)
  • Unable to swallow (1)
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How can Drugs be Administered?

  • Injection (1)
  • Cream (1)
  • Ointments (1)
  • Suppositories (1)
  • Drops (1)
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How can a Drug be Named?

  • Chemical name (1)
  • Brand name (1)
  • Generic name (1)
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Examples of Self-Treatment

  • Bed rest (1)
  • Drink plenty of fluids (1)
  • Keep warm (1)
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What is an Aseptic Technique?

  • Microbe free practices (1)
  • To avoid wound contamination (1)
  • During/post surgery (1)
  • E.g. sterilisation of surgical instruments (1)
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What is Local Anesthesia?

  • Using drugs/chemicals (1)
  • To block nerve pathways (1)
  • So area is numbed (1)
  • No loss of consciousness (1)
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Examples of Local Anesthesia

  • Dental treatment (1)
  • Epidurals for childbirth (1)
  • Eye surgery (1)
  • Endoscopy (1)
  • Brain surgery (1)
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How do GPs test Reflex?

  • The GP would test the knee jerk reflex (1)
  • The patient's legs dangling over edge of the bed (1)
  • A point just below the kneecap is tapped (1)
  • Using a rubber hammer (1)
  • This stretches the tendon (1)
  • Sends a nerve impulse to spinal cord (1)
  • Triggers the thigh muscle to contract (1)
  • Lower leg jerks upward (1)
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What is Palpation?

  • Using their hands to examine the body (1)
  • Using fingers to examine the size, texture, consistency and tenderness of an organ or body part (1)
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How are X-Rays Taken?

  • Machine emits electromagnetic radiation (1)
  • X-ray machine produces an invisible beam of x-rays (1)
  • Directed at a specific part of the body (1)
  • Sheet of photographic paper (1)
  • Placed under body part (1)
  • Enables beams to penetrate soft tissue in the body (1)
  • Cannot pass through bone (1)
  • Dense tissues like bone absorb the radiation (1)
  • Picture shows images of bones as light on black background (1)
  • Carried out by radiographer (1)
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Endoscopic Surgery

Endoscopic surgery is a procedure where the inside of the body is examined using an endoscope. An endoscope is a long, thin, flexible tube that has a light source and a video camera at one end. Images of the inside of the body are relayed to a TV screen.Endoscopes can be inserted into the body through a natural opening or through a small surgical cut made in the skin (known as keyhole surgery). A local anaesthetic may be given to the patient to help them relax. This surgery minimises damage to surrounding tissues.

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Smear Tests

The patient will be asked to undress from the waist down and lie on a couch. The doctor/nurse will gently put an instrument (a speculum) into the vagina. This holds the walls of the vagina open so that the cervix can be seen. A small brush-like instrument will be used gently to collect some cells from the surface of the cervix. The cell sample is then sent off to a lab for analysis. 

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