Graphics - Systems and Industry

CAD
Computer aided design. Designing products on a computer. Includes 2D programs (Techsoft) and 3D (SolidWorks). Helps designers model and change their ideas quickly. Easy to experiment with colour and forms. View from all angles in 3D programs.
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CAM
Computer aided manufacture. Manufacturing products with computer help. They are computer numerically controlled (CNC). Reads X,Y,Z coordinates. Examples are - CNC routers, laser cutters and laser printers.
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CAD/CAM
Linking CAD and CAM together.
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Advantages of CAD/CAM
Easy to develop ideas. Produce very realistic designs quickly. Machined at high speed. High quality and more reliable finished product (no human error). Mass produce complicated products. Can save lots of money as labour costs are lower.
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Disadvantages of CAD/CAM
Initial cost of software and hardware is high. Workers need expensive and lengthy training in how to use it. Work can be disrupted if the computers get a virus or a file gets corrupted.
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Spreadsheet Software
Work out production costs and time management, or to make graphs showing results of research
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Painting Software
Manipulating photos. Examples - Corel, Paint shop pro and Adobe Photoshop
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Pros on Using ICT
Increase the amount of work done. Workers benefit as computers can do the boring tasks. Transferring data is quick. Internet is really useful as a research tool
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Cons on Using ICT
Expensive to keep investing in the most efficient/latest tech. Takes time and money to retrain staff. May be job lesses as computers replace people. Continued use of computers can cause health problems.
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Electronic Date Interchange
IDE for short, is the direct transfer of information from one computer system to another via the internet.
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Manufacturing System
Input - Materials and tools you start with. Process - what happens to input to change it into an output so cutting, printing, etc. Output - Result of the system = the finished product.
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Flow Charts
Used to show the stages of a manufacturing process. Feedback loops - let you change the input as a result of quality checks.
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Quality Assurance
This involves having: Good staff training, procedures for checking the quality of materials, systems for keeping machinery maintained, quality control checks throughout the process, ensures manufacturers don't make loads of mistakes
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Quality Control Checks
These help to: Conform to the spec, do the job it's designed to do, meet the standards set by relevant institutions, keep customer happy, be manufactured consistently
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Checking Components
This means checking samples of components or finished products to check they meet the spec. It also has to be within a specific tolerance (upper and lower limit for a particular measurement)
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One-Off Prodcution
One of a kind products. Every item is different. Very labour intensive and takes a lot of time. Needs a highly skilled workforce, expensive way to make things. Used for made to measure furniture, paintings, etc.
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Batch Production
Make a specific quantity of a product. Used for leaflets and posters. Machinery and workforce have to be flexible. Between batches when machinery is being set up differently is called down time. Backlog of half-made products, not as efficient as mass
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Mass Production
Make thousands of identical products like newspapers and magazines. Each worker only does small part of process. Uses expensive, specialist equipment and CAD/CAM. Recruitment is easy - staff don't need to be highly skilled.
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Continuous Production
Runs all the time because would be too expensive to start and stop. Make huge amounts of one thing so is expensive by very efficient (cost per item is cheap). Good for chocolate bar packaging as they sell well all year round.
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Just In Time Production
Gets materials and components delivered as they're needed and uses as soon as delivered (saves on storage space, saves money, unsold finished products don't pile up). But relies on materials being on time and fault free.
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Vacuum Forming
1 - thermoplastic heated until soft 2 - mould is put onto vacuum bed then lifted close to plastic 3 - air sucked out from under plastic, creating a vacuum and forcing it to the mould. Used for making rigid polystyrene trays and mobile packaging.
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Blow Moulding
1 - tube of softened plastic is inserted into solid mould 2 - air is injected which forces plastic to expand to the shape of the mould. Used to make packaging like plastic bottles for fizzy drinks
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Die Cutting
Used to cut shapes out of and crease lines into card, paper or plastic. Produces nets of complex shapes (packaging for example). Cuts through many layers of material at a time so can make lots of nets quickly
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Mechanisms - Pop Ups
Pop ups - moves as you open a page, makes books/cards more interesting, known as V-Fold mechanism. Mechanisms used to make several types of motion.
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Mechanisms - Levers, Linkages & Pivots
Attached to main part of card/book and help something to move. Can connect together to form linkages. Move around pivots to change the type/direction of motion. Split pins used to link two levers together. Floating pivots - join levers together.
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Mechanisms - Types of Motion
Linear - straight line in on direction. Reciprocating - backwards and forwards in straight line. Oscillating - moving backwards and forwards in an arc. Rotary - moving in a circle
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Integrated Circuits
Electrical circuits - often complicated but tiny. Musical greetings cards use ICs to play tunes. Flashing badges use ICs to light it up when turned on. Used in products to attract attention and improve appearance.
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Lithography
Oil based ink and water. Ultraviolet light transfers the image onto printing plate. Image area holds ink. Fast ways of printing and give high quality product, used for print runs of 1000 or more - newspapers, books, mags, packaging.
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Flexograhpy
Uses flexible rubber printing plate. Image sticks out from plate. Can print on cardboard and plastic bottles. Quicker than lithography and plates last longer. Used for large print runs (5000+) like packaging, carrier bags and wallpaper
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Gravure
Uses an etched brass printing plate. Image is lower than the surface so ink fills the etched bits. Expensive to set up, really fast, million copies or more, higher quality than lithography, used to make stamps, photos in catalogues and mags
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Screen Printing
Stencil under mesh screen, ink spread over top so prints onto material below, low-cost process, for short print runs that need fine detail, print onto paper, card, fabric so used for t-shirts, posters
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Digital Printing
Uses inkjet and laser printers. No set up costs (apart from cartridges and printer), expensive per sheet but for short runs (few hundred) it's cheaper than setting up plates, used for posters, flyers etc
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Varnishing
Makes things look smooth, gloss, high quality. Can do it to the whole product (playing cards) or specific areas (book titles) - called spot varnishing
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Laminating
Sandwiching in plastic (e.g. a menu). Doing it to business cards, menus and posters makes them last longer without damage.
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Embossing
Pushing a shaped die into the back of the material to leave slightly raised impression on the surface. Draw attention to part of product - logo/title of book. Expensive but adds texture which suggests quality.
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Foil Application
Using heat & pressure to print metal foil onto certain areas. Draws attention to logo/brand name. It's expensive but suggests quality. Used on wrapping paper, book titles and cards
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Templates
Easy to make, simple to use, for repetitive shapes, needs to be strong
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Jigs
Guides the tools. Come in many shapes and sizes, speed up production, simplify the making process, help cut down errors
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Moulds
Commonly used for plastic products in processes like vacuum forming or blow moulding. Used over and over again with much detail.Can be expensive to produce, but effective if large numbers of the product are needed.
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Waste Material
Means loss of money. If manufacturers can make products for less money they sell it cheaper.
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Tessellate
Reduces waste by making as many products from the least amount of material
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Computer aided manufacture. Manufacturing products with computer help. They are computer numerically controlled (CNC). Reads X,Y,Z coordinates. Examples are - CNC routers, laser cutters and laser printers.

Back

CAM

Card 3

Front

Linking CAD and CAM together.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Easy to develop ideas. Produce very realistic designs quickly. Machined at high speed. High quality and more reliable finished product (no human error). Mass produce complicated products. Can save lots of money as labour costs are lower.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Initial cost of software and hardware is high. Workers need expensive and lengthy training in how to use it. Work can be disrupted if the computers get a virus or a file gets corrupted.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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