Graphics - Glossary

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GLOSSARY OF GENERAL TERMS
Aesthetics ­ How various features combine to make something `beautiful' or
`attractive'.
Aims ­ The broad educational or vocational purposes of a qualification.
Analyse ­ To reduce to basic elements ­ a term often used in the early stages of
the designing process.
Annotation ­ The addition of explanatory notes.
Anthropometrics ­ The study of the measurements and movement of human
beings.
Artefact ­ A product that has been designed and made.
Assessment Objectives ­ The criteria used to evaluate candidates attainments.
Batch Production ­ The limited production of a number of identical artefacts.
Blow Moulding ­ A common industrial plastic moulding process used for products
such as bottles and barrels.
Brief ­ A clear statement of the Design objective / Design task.
BSI ­ British Standards Institution ­ the organisation responsible for preparing
codes of practice. BS8888:2006
CAD ­ Computer aided design.
CAM ­ Computer aided manufacture.
CIM ­ (also called CAD/CAM) ­ an integrated system of design and manufacture
using computers.
Candidate Record Form ­ The sheet used for the assessment of individual
candidate's coursework and the declaration by both candidate and teacher(s) of the
help, over and above that normally expected from teachers, given in the production
of the coursework.
Client ­ An individual or company that employs the services of any professional
person, e.g. designers.
Colour Registration ­ The alignment of different colours used in the creation of a
printed item or artefact.

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Colour Wheel ­ This relates to the relationship between primary, secondary and
tertiary colours, complementary colours and the principles of how colour can be
used in products and design situations.
Compliant ­ A material that can be easily shaped, folded, cut or joined.
CNC ­ Computer numerical control.
Constraints ­ Limits placed on the designing process.
Consumer ­ A person who purchases or uses a product or service.…read more

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Economics of Scale ­ The reduction in unit costs as more are produced.
Embossing ­ This is the activity of distorting the material, generally paper and
card by the application of pressure. Embossing may be simulated by using
specialist embossing powders, used in conjunction with special pens or rubber
stamps.
Entry Codes ­ The codes to be used when entering candidates for each unit and
each qualification.
Ergonomics ­ The study of human interaction with the environment.…read more

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Internal Standardisation ­ The requirement for centres to standardise
assessment across different teachers and teaching groups to ensure that all
candidates at each centre have been judged against the same standards.
Jigs ­ Devices for holding parts in the appropriate position for machining or
assembling.
Just in Time ­ This is a system used to plan the sequences and requirements of
each stage involved in the manufacture of a product.…read more

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Preparation Sheet ­ The sheet issued to centres prior to the examination which
contains details of topics that will be covered in the examination paper.
Primary Research ­ Research done by an individual from original sources.
Production Planning ­ The process of detailing the steps that need to be carried
out before a product is manufactured that takes account of both time constraints
and available resources.
Profit ­ The difference between the cost of production, including overheads, and
the selling price.…read more

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Secondary Research ­ Research drawn from existing sources such as books and
magazines.
Smart Materials - These are modern materials that respond to differences in
temperature or light and then change in some way. Some also have a memory and
they revert back to their original state ­ e.g. colour changing dyes.
Solution ­ The means by which the need is satisfied.
Specification ­ (1) The criteria that a solution must achieve.…read more

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Varnishing ­ This is the application of a thin glossy varnish that is applied to a
printed product. It has a number of functions ­ it can help to protect the printed
product, it makes it more attractive and can also be used to create dramatic
highlights. There are various types of varnish used for different applications.
Vacuum Forming ­ The process of shaping thermoplastics onto a former by the
application of heat and a vacuum.…read more

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