design and market influences

Design and market inflences

Harry Beck (AQA)

  • electrical draughtsman who was aware of different colours on resistors
  • desgned a colour coded system for the underground stations in the 1930's
  • clear and comprehensible chart that would become an essential guide to london and a template for transport maps the world over
  • known as a schematic map
  • represents the elements of a system using grpahic symbols
  • for travellers to find their way from one station to another
  • represented in a simplistic form to avoid confusion
  • survives to the present day 
  • didn't receive official recognition until the 1990's

The Alessi Company (AQA)

  • founded in 1921 by Alberto Alessi's grandfather
  • produced general homeware items
  • Alberto took over in 1970
  • commissioned leading artists and architects
  • using designers from different fields in this way resulted in fresh and innovative designs many of which are now regarded as modern classics

Jock Kinneir and Margaret Calvert (AQA)

  • designed a signage system of carefully coordinated lettering, colours, shapes and symbols for Britain's new motorways in the late 1950's and all other roads in the mid 1960's
  • signs were clear and functional as they could be understood quickly and accurately from a fast moving car
  • designs are a role model for modern road signage in other countries
  • still in use today

Wally Olins (AQA)

  • co-founder of Wolff Olins until 1997
  • one of the biggest practitioners of corporate identity and branding
  • believed the product reflected the positive qualities of the whole company

Robert Sabuda (AQA)

  • initially worked as a package designer
  • specialises in pop-up mechanisms in books

Ergonomics and anthropometrics

  • application of scientific information to the design of objects, systems and the environment, for human use
  • important part of research
  • any new product must be suited to the user and therefore comfortable to use
  • anthropometric data is supplied by the British Standards institution based on the sizes of people
  • helps designers to design products for their target market

Design factors

  • smell
  • strength/flexibility
  • shape/form
  • quality
  • light
  • environmental/sustainable issues
  • temperature
  • finish
  • size
  • noise
  • weight
  • rigidity


  • legibility is an important factor when designing
  • important that lettering is quick and easy to read in order to sell the product
  • important to choose a font that has a style and colour that is easy to read
  • contrast means that one colour can stand out from another and is an important ergonomic factor
  • if the contrast is wrong, writing can be hard to read
  • a significant majority of the population are red/green colour blind, so this shouldbe taken into account when designing a product

Product analysis

Product analysis

  • about looking at a product, dissassembling it and working out how it was made
  • by looking carefully at a product you are not only evaluating it but learning from it
  • also helps to establish if there's a 'gap in the market' so you can design something to suit a particular problem
  • you need to consider a list of categories when analysing a product

1. Function

  • What is the need for this product?
  • use diagrams to demonstrate how it's…


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