Graphics, GCSE, notes on the whole textbook

This took me 3 days to make last year but it covers the whole text book! I even gave it to my old teacher and he uses it now for other year groups! I wouldn't have passed with out it! hope it helps!!!

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Graphics Revision ­ Charlotte Cox
GRAPHICS REVISION
Materials and components Page No.
1) Sketching Techniques -2
2) Types and properties if paper, card and boards -2
3) Thermoplastics -4
4) Smart and modern materials -5
5) Key Designers -8
Process and manufacture
1) Techniques and processes -9
2) Presentation - 11
3) Pictorial drawings - 12
4) Working drawings - 12
5) Surface developments and nets - 13
6) Information drawings -
14
7) Paper engineering and bought-in components - 16
8) Product and applications - 16
9) Evaluation techniques - 17
10) Moral, social, cultural, environmental,
economic and sustainability issues - 17
11) ICT -
18
12) Health and safety - 19
Design and market influences
1) Systems, control procedures and industrial practices - 21
2) Printing - 21
3) Print finishes - 24
4) Packaging - 25
5) Patents, copyrights, registered designs and trademarks -
26
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Graphics Revision ­ Charlotte Cox
Materials and components
1)
Sketching Techniques
Freehand sketching ­ straight lines, freehand curves
Pictorial drawings ­ 2D, 3D, crating, plans (front elevation etc.…read more

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Graphics Revision ­ Charlotte Cox
`Virgin' paper is made from 100% wood pulp and does not contain any recycled paper
Paper and boards vary in thickness and surface finish depending on their required usage
Boards can be modified with coatings or combined with other materials to give different qualities
Type Weight/thickness Advantages Uses Relative cost
10 = high
Newsprint 50gsm Cheap, lightweight, Newspapers 1
uncoated
Layout paper 60gsm Thin and slightly Used for paper 3
translucent sketches and tracing
Tracing paper 70gsm Transparent Tracing one…read more

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Graphics Revision ­ Charlotte Cox
4 main cartonboards
Material Characteristics Uses
Solid bleached board Highest quality white top printable Perfumes, chocolates, cigarettes
surface
Solid unbleached board Brown, very strong Drinks
Folding boxboard White top layer with cream bottom Toys, games
layer
White lined chipboard Recycled board with a white top surface Detergent powders
Types of coatings
Aluminium foil ­ insulation or bacterial barrier ­ drink containers
Plastic ­ waterproofing ­ smoothie cartons
Greaseproof paper ­ backing cups for cupcakes
Wax coating ­ waterproofing ­ take…read more

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Graphics Revision ­ Charlotte Cox
Types and properties of plastics
Name Properties Uses
Bioplastic Biodegradable, based on plants All sorts of food packaging
Clear or coloured
Cellulose acetate Partially biodegradable, based on plants Photocopiable clear film and film for
but with added chemicals cameras
Clear but not tough
Acrylic Stiff but brittle Point of sale stands
Can shape and polish edges to high Available as rods, tubes as well as
gloss sheets
Wide variety of colours
PET ­ polyethylene terephthalate Tough and very good at…read more

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Graphics Revision ­ Charlotte Cox
A smart material is a material that responds to a stimulus like heat or light and then returns to its original
stare when the stimulus is removed
Thermochromic materials
Materials change colour depending on their temperature
Used to attract or warn the consumer
Easily printed on different surfaces such as paper, plastic, ceramics or textiles
Most common use is in thermometers we can put on our foreheads
Photochronic materials
Materials change colour in response to light
Most common use is…read more

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Graphics Revision ­ Charlotte Cox
Fully biodegradable
Light weight ­ saves on transport and emissions
DVD and CD case inserts
Lyocell ­ a high-strength paper fibre produced from wood pulp
Totally biodegradable
Makes special papers for tea bags, coffee filters and strong envelopes
Polymorph ­ a special plastic often used for modelling
Stays hard and white at room temperature
Easily moulded into any complex shape
Could be classed as a `smart' material as it returns to its harden form when the heat is removed
PMC…read more

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Graphics Revision ­ Charlotte Cox
Harry Beck ­ graphic designer
Alberto Alessi ­ manufacturer
Jock Kinnear and Margaret Calvert ­ graphics designers
Wally Olins ­ brand consultant
Robert Sabuda ­ author, illustrator and `pop-up' book designer
HARRY BECK
Designed the London Underground map
It is a non-geographical map
The distance between the stops isn't important ­ the passengers wanted to know what station was next and
where is was
Based around a simple electrical wiring diagrams
Colour distinguishes the different lines
Becks map is simple…read more

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Graphics Revision ­ Charlotte Cox
1)
Techniques and processes
Models, mock-ups and prototypes are used by designers to refine the design process and to communicate
ideas to clients, they are usually 3D models but can be 2D drawings
A model is a graphic representation of the item you are designing and it is often scaled down
A prototype is a life size working model of a design and is used for testing, development and ­
evaluation
A mock up is often full size and is…read more

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Graphics Revision ­ Charlotte Cox
Expanded Block File or rasp Great for 3D Difficult to Cut in a well No
Abrasive paper achieve a ventilated
polystyrene modelling models place
Filler (plaster of high-quality
Wear a mask
Paris) surface finish
to protect
Acrylic paint from dust
Balsa Wood Block File or rasp Stronger than Takes longer to None Yes
modelling Abrasive Styrofoam shape
paper Can act as More expensive
mould for
Acrylic paint than Styrofoam
vacuum former
Plasticine or Block Fingers and Very quick to Difficult…read more

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