Geography Chapter 15

Rock structure
It's properties and appereance
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Rock resistance
strength of the rock
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porous/porosity
rock that consists of tiny pores through which water can pass through
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Freeze-thaw
on a warm day when water enters the cracks of a rock and freezes on a colder day causing an increased pressure exertion on the rock. When temperatures rises, the ice melts and pressure is released this widens the cracks of the rock and causes pieces
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Exfoliation
happens in warm climates when rocks is repeatedly heated and cooled. This creates an onion effect where the surface layers peel off.
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Limestone solution/Carbonation
caused by carbonic acid in natural rainwater, reacts chemically with limestone rocks, the limestone slowly dissolves and it is removed in solution by running water.
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Soil creep
slowest of downhill movements, occurring on very gentle and well-vegetated slopes
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Mudlows
rapid movements most likely to occur on steep slopes without warning
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Landslides
noticeable movement of material
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Escarpment
A long, more or less continuous cliff or relatively steep slope facing in one direction.
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Soil profile
Top layer of the soil
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Soil horizons
the different layers of the soil A, B and C horizons
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Parent rock
underlying rock weathered to give a layer of loose, broken material
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Desertification
process of land degradation where land turns into a desert from severe drought
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Formation, characteristics, examples, uses of igneous rocks
Formation: from volcanic activity, consist of christals, eg. granite and basalt
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Formation, characteristics, examples, uses of Sedimentary rocks
eg. limestone, sandstone, coal consist of small particles that have been eroded
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Formation, characteristics, examples, uses of Metaphoric rocks
marble altered by extremes of pressure or heat eg. limestone changed into
17 of 24
Causes and effects of mass movement
soil creep, mudlows
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Advantages and problems of mining and quarrying in areas like National Parks
Advantages: provides jobs, improved local roads for extra traffic, can create local processing industries. Problems: loss of wildlife, air pollution, noise, loss of farmland
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Causes and effects or desertification
unreliable rainfall, fragile environment, overgrazing, farming on average land, destruction of plants
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How are soils formed?
The parent rock get repositioned by water, wind, ice or volcanic activity, addition of water,gases, living organisms and decayed organic matter causes the formation of soil
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Chemical weathering
decomposition of rocks caused by a chemical change change within the rock eg. limestone solution
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Physical weathering
breaking down of rocks, soils and minerals as well as artificial materials in contact with the Earths atmosphere and waters. eg. freeze-thaw or frost shattering
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Biological weathering
Activity of living organisms. eg. growth of roots
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Rock resistance

Back

strength of the rock

Card 3

Front

porous/porosity

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Freeze-thaw

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Exfoliation

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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