HIGH DEATH RATES
- Poor health care/few hospitals/doctors/nurses/clinics
- Poor sanitation/poor hygiene/lack of toilets/dirty places
- Poor access to safe/clean water/water borne diseases
- Limited food supplies/malnutrition/starvation
- Natural disasters/drought/flood
- Lack of vaccinations/medicines/cannot cure diseases
- Lack of education about healthy lifestyles e.g. smoking/diet
- Lack of provision for elderly e.g. pensions/old people’s homes
LOW BIRTH RATES
- Availability of contraception/family planning/abortions
- Educated in contraception/family planning
- Able to afford contraception/family planning/abortions
- Traditionally small families
- Expense of bringing up children
- Many women have careers/women are educated;
- Availability of pensions
- Low infant mortality rate
- Lack of religious beliefs/don’t object to contraception
HIGH BIRTH RATES*
- No birth control or family planning
- High infant mortality rate so paretns have more chilren in hope more will survive
- Children are needed to support family
- Relgious belifs
- lack of education about birth ocntrol/family planning
- Attitudes toward women
- Many women don't have careers
LOW DEATH RATES*
- Available health care -> vaccinations, doctors, hospitals and new drugs
- Improves sanitation and water supply
- Improvements in food production
- Improved transport to move food, doctors, etc.
- Decrease in child mortality
PROBLEMS OF OVERPOPULATION
- Shortage of hospitals/schools
- Shortage of housing
- Inflation (excess demand)
- Shortage of water & electricity
- Nosie, air & water pollution
PROBLEMS OF UNDERPOPULATION
- Shortage of workers
- Less paying taxes
- Schools, hospitals & transport
- routes close; few customers
- Less innovation/development
- Hard to defend
- Have to attract migrants
CAUSES OF SPARSE POPULATION
- Mountainous area
- Very hot or very cold area
- A heavily forested area
- Areas that flood a lot
- No jobs
- Poor supply of electricity, gasand water
- Poor communications
- Shortage of natural resources
- No schools or hospitals
- Regular natural disasters
CAUSES OF DENSE POPULATION
- Coastal areas
- Flat relief; easy to build on
- Close to a supply of water
- Areas with natural resources
- Fertile agricultural land
- Developed transport links
- Plenty of available jobs
- Available electricity and water
- Good communications
- Good quality schools/hospitals
CAUSES OF VOLUNTARY MIGRATION
- Find a job, or a better paid job
- Pioneers developing new areas
- Trade & economic expansion
- Territorial expansion
- Better climate
- Social amenities
- Be with friends/family
CAUSES OF FORCED MIGRATION
- Avoid religious/political persecution
- Avoid war
- Slavery/prisoner of war
- Racial discrimination
- Natural disasters
ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF EMIGRATION
- Reduces pressure on
- Decline in birth rate
- Migrants bring back new skills
- Money is sent back
- Loss of people in working age
- Loss of educated/skilled
- Division of families
- Left with elderly population
ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF IMMIGRATION
- Overcomes labor shortage
- Dirty unskilled jobs done
- Will work long hours for low salary
- Cultural advantages and links
- Pressure on jobs
- Low quality & overcrowded housing
- Language problems
- Less healthy
- Less religious amenities for immigrants
- Rural Areas: tend to have a lot less functions than urban areas. The main purpose of settlements in rural areas is normally agriculture and possibly tourism. This is because rural areas have less people, poorer transport, poorer communication, less technology and the land is better used for other purposes.
- Urban Areas: tend to have a lot more functions ranging from shopping functions, to educational functions, to transport functions, to administrative functions and residential functions. The bigger the urban area, the more functions that it normally has.
BURGESS LAND USE MODEL
- Based on idea that land values are highest in the center, Because competition is high in central parts of the settlement
- Model quite old & developed before mass car ownership.
- New working/housing trend
- Every city is different
HOYT LAND USE MODEL
- Based on circles in Burgess model, but adds sectors of similar land uses in parts of the city.
- Some zones, e.g. industry zone, radiate out from the CBD, probably following the line of a main road or a railway.
PROBLEMS OF URBAN GROWTH FOR PEOPLE:
- Unable to obtain jobs/low pay
- Pressure on schools/hospitals
- Increased crime rates
- Difficulties of waste/litter
- Traffic congestion
- Noise pollution
- Lack of sanitation
- Poor quality of life
- Food shortage
PROBLEMS OF URBAN GROWTH FOR THE ENVIRONMENT:
- Loss of vegetation
- Loss of habitats
- Impacts on food chains
- Pollution of rivers
- Death of fish/other species
- Pollution of ground water
- Air/atmospheric pollution
- Rivers dry up
REASONS FOR URBAN RENEWAL
- Older properties fallen into disrepair/high cost of repair
- Use land more intensively
- Demand for apartments
- Building of houses with better amenities
- New road developments
- New leisure/shopping centres
REASONS AGAINST URBAN RENEWAL (Why people want kee
- Older houses retain culture
- Old houses often large/well constructed
- People can’t afford to move
- Cheaper option for authority
- To restrict outward expansion
- Land never used – not polluted
- Often near rural-urban fringe so good transport links
- Less congestion
- Room to expand
- Conflicts with other land users
- Many sites are now protected by the government
- Public protests for building on greenfield sites
- Often cheap to buy
- Near the CBD
- Closer to transport routes
- Site polluted – expensive to clean up
- No room to expand
- May not be in desirable shape or location
- At a destructive plate margin, the oceanic plate is subducted whilst the continental plate is crumpled upwards to form a mountain range
- At collision margins, both plates forced upwards in a series of folds
- Two types of fold mountains
- Young: 10 to 15 million years of age e.g. Rockies and Himalayas
- Old: Over 200 million years of age e.g. Uralas and Appalachians
- Created by uplift and folding of tectonic plates as they move towards each other and collide
- Movement of two plates forces sedimentary rocks upwards into a series of folds
A vent in the earth's surface where magma, gas or ash escapes onto the earth's surface or into the atmosphere.
- At constructive margin: plates move away from each other; magma rises to fill the gap;
- At destructive margin: oceanic crust melts from friction and heat from mantle; newly formed magma is lighter so it rises to surface
VOLCANOES ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
- Tourist attraction: income and employment
- Creates fertile soil: good agricultural land to grow crops
- Geothermal heating:
- Natural renewable resource
- Heating (hot water)
- Destruction of land, property, jobs, homes, transport - rebuilding costs
- Fires breakout
- Diseases from poor sanitation
- Gas from eruption suffocates
- Pyroclastic flow
VOLCANOES PREDICTION AND PREPARATION
- Tremors within volcano
- Ground temperatures rises, detect by heat-seeking cameras
- Volcano swells and bulges
- Volcano emits gas and steam
- Animal behavior changes
- Set up warning system
- Create evacuation plan
- Train emergency services
- Organize post-eruption plan
- Emergency food supply
A series of vibrations or movements in the earth's crust
- Caused when two plates ‘stick’; pressure builds up; one plate jerks forward sending shock waves to the surface
EARTHQUAKES FEATURES AND EFFECTS
- Focus: point of earthquake
- Epicenter: point directly above the focus, on the ground
- Seismic waves
- Subduction zone: occurs at destructive margin, one plate goes under the other
- Large number of deaths
- Fires breaking out
- Water pipes burst
- Water contamination, diseases
- Accessibility difficult
- Building damaged/destroyed - reconstruction costs
- Tsunami can follow
EARTHQUAKES PREDICTION AND PREPARATION
- Measure earth tremors, pressure, and release of gas
- Use maps and facts to find pattern in time/location
- Unusual animal behavior
- Build earthquake-proof buildings and roads
- Train emergency services
- Set up warning system
- Create evacuation plan
- Emergency food supply
- Practice drills
- Computer-controlled weights on roof to reduce movement
- Fire-resistant building material
- No bricks or reinforced concrete block
- Rubber shock-absorbers between foundations and superstructure
- Foundation sunk deep into bedrock avoiding clay
- Roads to provide quick access by ambulances and fire engines
- Open areas where people can assemble if evacuated
- Automatic shutters come down over the windows
- Interlocking steel frames which can sway during earth movements
- Freeze-thaw: occurs where there are cracked rocks and temperatures fluctuate around freezing point, repeated freezing and thawing causes cracks to widen.
- Exfoliation: occurs in very warm climates where there are exposed, non-vegetated rocks. The outer layers heat up and cool down faster than the inner layers causing stresses in the rock; the outer layer peels off.
- Biological weathering: roots widen weaknesses in the rock until part of the rock detaches
Chemical weathering: occurs in warm, moist climates
- Carbonation: Carbon dioxide in air reacts with rainwater and forms carbonic acid/acid rain. This reacts with calcium carbonate or chalk forming calcium bicarbonate or calcium hydrogen carbonate which is soluble in water. this widens/ deepen cracks
- Oxidation: If rock contains iron, it is oxidized in the presence of water forming iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3) or rust. This gives the rock a reddish brown colour. The rock is weakened & eventually crumbles away.
- Traction: rolling stones along the bed
- Saltation: small particles bounce along bed in a leapfrog motion
- Suspension: silt and clay-sized are carried within the water flow
- Solution: minerals dissolve in the water
- Attrition: large particles such as boulders collide and break into smaller pieces (occurs at higher part of river)
- Hydraulic action: the sheer force of the river dislodges particles from its banks and bed
- Abrasion: smaller particles rub against the river banks and bed like sand-paper; occurs at low part of river (smaller particles)
- Solution: acids in river dissolve rocks (occurs at any part of river)
- When a river lacks the energy to carry its load; it begins with the heaviest particles; happens when there is less water or where the current slows down.
- Large boulders are deposited at the top, and very small particles are deposited at the end, resulting in sorting.
- V-shaped valley:
- Valley is narrow with a narrow, shallow river channel
- Valleys have steep sides
- Channel has a steep gradient
- Water is mainly slow flowing as most of the rivers energy is used to overcome the friction of the river bed & obstructions
- Load is mainly large, angular and rough
- Interlocking spurs: In the upper valley a river is in the mountains. Water takes the easiest path downhill so twists & turns around the high land (spurs) forming interlocking spurs.
RIVER LANDFORMS 2
- They occur because the river flows over hard rock which erodes slowly.
- Beneath is softer rock which is eroded faster to form a “step”.
- The force of the water erodes the bottom of the waterfall to form a plunge pool.
- The hard rock gets undercut as the soft rock erodes so that it eventually collapses
- Rapids: They form also where the river passes over hard rock, but either the band of rock is not very deep or there are a series of shallow rock bands.
- Potholes: Can be found in the upper & middle valley where a river flows over solid rock.
RIVER LANDFORMS 3
- Wide sweeping bends found in the lower part of the river.
- They are formed by a combination of lateral erosion & deposition.
- Ox-bow Lakes:
- Form when the neck of the meander becomes very narrow.
- During high flow or floods the river cuts through the neck & straightens its course.
- Deposition occurs on the bank of the river
- The cut-off meander is an ox-bow lake.
RIVER LANDFORMS 4
- Deltas occur where a river that carries a large amount of sediment meets a lake or the sea.
- This meeting causes the river to lose energy and drop the sediment
- Deltas form where river mouths become choked with sediment, causing the main river channel to split into smaller channels or distributaries
- Levées: when a river floods, the coarsest material is deposited first, on the edges of the river, forming a natural embankment called a levée.
- Flood plain:
- Area of alluvial deposits found beside the river in its lower course.
- As meanders move slowly down the course of the river they erode away the valley to create a wide valley floor, and they deposit layers of alluvial material on the slip off slopes building up into a large flood plain
CAUSES OF RIVER FLOODING
- Steep-sided channel: a river channel surrounded by steep slopes causes fast surface run-off.
- Lack of vegetation or woodland: surface run-off will be high as trees and plants won’t intercept precipitation.
- Drainage basin, consisting of mainly impermeable rock: water cannot percolate through rock layer, and will runoff surface
- Drainage basin in an urban area: these consist largely of impermeable concrete, which encourages overland flow.
- Deforestation, overgrazing and overcultivation, and population pressures cause soil erosion causes sediment to go into rivers decreasing the cross-sectional area
FLOOD MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES
- Built along the course of a river in order to control the amount of discharge.
- Water is held back by the dam in a reservoir and released in a controlled way which controls flooding.
- Building dams is expensive, can affect farmers and cause erosion downstream
- River engineering:
- The river channel may be widened or deepened allowing it to carry more water.
- The channe is straightened so that water travels faster along the course.
- The channel course can be altered, diverting floodwaters away from settlements.
- Altering the river channel may lead to a greater risk of flooding downstream, as the water is carried there faster.
FLOOD MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES 2
- Trees planted near to the river meaning greater interception of rainwater and lower river discharge.
- This is a relatively low cost option, which enhances the environmental quality of the drainage basin.
- Managed flooding: The river is allowed to flood naturally in places, to prevent flooding in other areas
- Local authorities and national government introduce policies to control urban development close to or on floodplain reducing chance of flooding and risk of damage to property.
- However, enforcing planning regulations and controls may be harder in LEDCs
TYPES OF WAVES
- Low wave height & usually beach gradient is gentle.
- Waves spill forward gently creating a strong swash.
- Water drains away through beach material so backwash is weak.
- These waves deposit material & build up beaches
- High wave height & the beach tends to be steep.
- Wave plunges forward onto beach so swash is weak, but rotation of water causes a strong backwash.
- These waves tend to erode beaches.
COMPONENTS OF A WAVE
- Swash: when a wave breaks & washes up the beach.
- Backwash: when the water drains away back into the oncoming wave.
- The size of waves depends upon three factors:
- The strength of the wind.
- The length of time the wind has been blowing.
- The fetch or distance over which the wind can blow.
CLIFF AND WAVE-CUT PLATFORM
- Wave erosion is concentrated at the foot of the cliff so a wave-cut notch is formed.
- The cliff is undercut & collapses.
- Repeated collapse causes retreat of the cliff producing a platform of flat rock at the cliff foot extending out to sea.
SPITS AND SALT MARSHES
- Spits form when the coastline changes direction. Longshore drift continues to carry material in the same direction.
- Sand & shingle is built up to form the spit.
- End of spit curves due to wave refraction or secondary winds.
- Salt marsh:
- Mud is deposited by the tides. The beach builds up above sea level forming mudflats.
- Plants start to grow in mud & trap more sediment, forming a salt marsh.
- Bars: A spit that connects two headlands or runs across the face of a small cove (bay)
- Sand dunes form behind wide sandy beaches.
- Onshore winds pick up the dry sand from above the high-water mark & carry it landward by saltation.
- If they encounter an obstacle the wind loses energy & deposits sand in the lee of the obstacle.
- Eventually a dune is formed. Plants then grow on it which stabilize it & trap more sand.
- Conditions required for growth of coral reef:
- Warm water/seas; temperatures above 20°C
- Shallow water; not more than 60 meters deep
- Water free from sediment/clear/availability of light
- Plentiful supply of oxygen in water/unpolluted
- Plentiful supply of plankton
- Lack of strong currents
TYPES OF CORAL REEF
- Coral reefs grow in the shallow water of the coast in tropical areas
- Due to plate tectonics island starts to sink
- Reef grows to keep up with the sinking, but a lagoon develops between reef & land
- These form around islands that are sinking.
- Coral growth keeps up with this& island keeps sinking
- Eventually island sinks below sea level forming a ring of coral with a lagoon in the centre.
- Conditions for mangrove swamps to grow:
- Topical or subtropical environment
- Shore is soft and muddy – easy to take root
- Shoreline must be undisturbed for them to prosper
- Emersion due to overflow of water
- Saline environment
- Lack of oxygen
- Plants adapt to water environment
- Plants have waxy covering prevents entry of salt
- Long roots take in air through pores when possibly
BENEFITS AND DRAWBACKS OF MANGROVE SWAMPS
- Provide habitat and protection many aquatic life
- Important area for fishing industry
- Slows water flow allowing for fertile deposits
- Protects coast from erosion – dissipates wave energy
- Advance outwards – leaves fertile land for settlements
- Mangrove wood collected for firewood
- Work like a natural water cleaning system
- Noxious and impenetrable
- Full of disease
COASTAL DEFENCES (Hard Engineering)
- Rip-rap: giant boulders placed at foot of cliffs, absorbs waves energy and protects cliffs. Effective, but ugly, reduces access to beach and is expensive
- Gabion: uses large boulders placed in cages, can be installed quickly and is fairly effective. Looks ugly, reduces access and can be expensive.
- Groynes: Stop longshore drift transporting away beach material. Can be effective, but need replacing regularly, look ugly and can cause problems down coast.
- Sea wall: made out of concrete and are aimed to absorb wave energy. Very effective, but are expensive, ugly and reduce access
- Breakwater: are built out into the sea and are a coats first line of defence. Instead of breaking on coast, waves break on breakwater. Often found around the mouths of rivers and ports. They are expensive and can disrupt shipping.
- Revetments: similar to sea walls, but often built out of wood. Found at the foot of cliffs and are designed at absorb the waves energy. Need replacing regularly & don’t protect against storms.
COASTAL DEFENCES (Soft Engineering)
- Dune Stabalisation: planting vegetation on berm of beach or on dunes, making them more stable (roots) and reducing the moisture content (root uptake)
- Cliff Regrading: make cliffs less steep; reducing angle reduces undercutting and risk of cliff collapsing
- Beach Nourishment: adding more sand to the beach. Beaches are natural defences, so by making them bigger, you are creating a natural defence.
- Beach Drainage: removing some of the excess water reduces stress on the cliff.
- Managed Retreat: allowing sea to take back land. Low value land is often chosen to be flooded by sea.
Stevenson’s Screen: contains the thermometers
- Painted white to reflect the sun with a double lid for insulation.
- Slatted sides to let the air circulate, but slanted downwards to prevent light getting in.
- Legs 1m long to prevent heating from ground.
- On short grass so it’s standardized i.e. same amount of reflectivity.
TYPES OF CLOUDS
- Cirrus: found high in the atmosphere, common throughout the world, thin and wispy in appearance and move fairly quickly
- Stratus: low level, usually grey in colour, move fast and can produce light rain and snow.
- Cumulonimbus: large clouds up to 10km high and across, produce rain, thunder and lightening, usually found in spring and summer
- Cumulus: fairly low clouds, look like lumps of cotton wool, can produce light rain and each individual clouds has a short life cycle
TYPES OF RAINFAL
- Warm moist air from the sea
- Forced to rise over mountain/hill
- Cools as it rises, condensation, clouds form, rain
- Warm airmass meets colder air mass
- Warm air mass rises over colder, condensation, clouds form, rain
- Sun heats ground which heats air
- Warm air rises
- Cools as it rises, condensation, clouds form, rain
FACTORS AFFFECTING TEMPERATURE
- Latitude: closer to the equator = higher temperature
- Distance from the sea: coastal area = warmer winters and cooler summers
- Prevailing winds: seasonal difference in heating between land and sea affects temperature of prevailing wind. Warm prevailing wind = rise in temperature
- Ocean currents: warm currents raise winter temperatures in coastal areas; cold currents cool them down in summer
- Altitude: higher altitude = lower temperature (1° per 100m)
ECOSYSTEM: TROPICAL RAINFOREST
Vegetation grows in distinct layers.
- Emergent layer: tall trees up to 50m. Grow above others to get full sunlight.
- Main canopy: trees 30-40m forming a continuous canopy. Few lower branches.
- Under canopy: trees 20m high – less dense can survive in less sunlight.
- Shrub layer: low shrubs & saplings. Shade plants.
Forest floor: little grows except fungi – too little light.
- Since the trees grow tall, have large buttress roots for support
- Lianas use large trees as a support in order to reach the sunlight.
- Epiphytes grow on trees to get light & have hanging roots that collect rainwater.
- Leaves shed water easily having drip tips & “channels” to direct the water.
REASONS FOR DEFORESTATION OF TROPICAL RAINFORESTS
Reasons for deforestation:
- Farming: demand for food increases with population - need to clear more usable ground
- Hydro-Electric Power: land may need to be removed to build damn or floodable area
- Mining: demand for resources increase – rainforests hold plenty
- Road building: increased congestion requires new roads – rainforest in the way
- Settlements: population increase causes cities to become bigger requiring more land
- Timber: self-explanatory
PROBLEMS DUE TO DEFORESTATION OF TROPICAL RAINFORE
- Flooding: less interception by vegetation thus more flash floods
- Landslides: removal of vegetation causes soil to become unstable
- Biodiversity Loss: deforestation kills off unknown species, since they will have no home
- Less Photosynthesis: causes imbalance of oxygen and carbon dioxide in atmosphere
- Silting: rivers, seas and oceans become more difficult to navigate due to reduced depth
- Desertification: soil loses components vital to survival of plants – become hard
- Indigenous: these people lose their homes, more importantly impact their society
- Less Rainfall: Less interception = less transpiration = fewer clouds = less rainfall
ECOSYSTEM: TROPICAL DESERT
Plants such as cacti:
- Have thick, waxy cuticles to reduce transpiration;
- Fleshy stems to store water;
- Leaves reduced to spines to reduce surface area for transpiration & prevent animals eating them & sunken stomata.
- Small, waxy leaves & long tap roots to reach down to water table and/or shallow roots to collect any moisture before it evaporates.
- Seeds can lie dormant for years. After rain they germinate quickly, flower & produce seeds within 2-3 weeks
- Process in which the world is becoming increasingly interconnected
- Causes of globalization:
- Improvements in transportation
- Freedom of trade
- Improvements of communications
- Labour availability and skills
POSITIVE IMPACTS OF GLOBALIZATION
- Economies of scale, cost per item reduced when operating on a larger scale
- TNCs helps countries; provide new jobs & skills for local people
- TNCs bring money and foreign currency to local economies
- Allows for sharing of ideas, experiences and lifestyles of people and cultures
- Increases awareness of events in far-away parts of the world
NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF GLOBALIZATION
- Globalisation operates mostly in interests of richest countries
- No guarantees that wealth from inward investment will benefit local community
- Profits are sent back to the MEDC where the TNC is based
- TNCS, with massive economies of scale, may drive local companies out of business
- If cheaper in another country, TNC might close down factory making locals redundant
- Absence of laws may allow TNCs to operate in LEDCs in ways not allowed in MEDCs
- Threat to the world's cultural diversity, such as the traditions and languages
- Industry may begin to thrive in LEDCs at expense of jobs in MEDCs
FACTORS AFFECTING FARMING
- Temperature determines crops grown
- Crops grow where there is an adequate growing season
- There must be sufficient rainfall for crops to grow
- Irrigation needed if insufficient rain
- Cereal crops/vines need sunshine to ripen
- Too much rainfall may flood crops/require drainage system
- In areas with frost/long winter hardy animals may be kept
- If it is windy wind breaks are needed etc.
- Better/alluvial soil means arable farming otherwise pastoral
- Flat relief means arable and hilly relief means pastoral
HIGH YIELD VARIETIES
High Yield Varieties:
- Developed to try and end food shortages by increasing yields.
- Were first developed by cross pollinating different varieties
- This is now being done through genetic modification.
SUCCESSES OF HIGH YIELD VARIETIES
- HYV did increase food production and made countries more self-sufficient
- Food prices began to fall making; affordable for poor
- Shorter growing season, more crops could be grown
- The yields were more reliable
- Different crops were grown adding variety to local diet
- There were surpluses so crops could be traded commercially
- Farmers became wealthier
FAILURES OF HIGH YIELD VARIETIES
- Required fertilisers & pesticides polluted water
- The HYV were more prone to disease and drought
- More water had to be diverted to growing crops
- Many poorer farmers couldn’t afford to buy expensive HYV
- Mechanisation led to unemployment
- Many natural varieties lost
- Countries & farmers became dependent on foreigners
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MONOCULTURES
- Become more efficient
- Can have high yields
- Easily controllable
- Low training required
- If demand falls, no profit
- Less variety
- Bad season, no profit
- Labor becomes deskilled
- Only source of income
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ORGANIC CROPS AND
- Longer to ripen; better flavour
- Low fertilizer use; less run-off
- Less chemicals to consumers
- Higher prices when sold
- Crops are not uniform
- May be susceptible to disease
- Take longer to grow
- May need more water
ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF GM CROPS AND FARMING
- Uniform in shape – easy to transport/ appeal consumers
- Growing season shorter
- Drought resistant – less water
- Higher yields
- Natural species may die
- Taste is often not as good
- Lead to development of super weeds – stronger than GM
- No one is aware of the long term effect on humans
HUMAN CAUSES OF FAMINE
- Increasing population; supply cannot keep up with demand
- Overgrazing reduces integrity of soil and can cause topsoil erosion and soil degradation.
- Overcultivating causes soil degradation, using up and not giving nutrients recovery time
- Deforestation of woodland, damages integrity of soil as well as its source of nutrients.
- Farming and industrial pollution can both degrade land and reduce crop yields
- Corruption of government
PHYSICAL CAUSES OF FAMINE
- Too hot or cool temperatures can kill crops and animals.
- Shortage of rainfall kills most crops or require irrigation
- Too much rainfall can flood & kill crops or wash away topsoil reducing soils fertility leading to low yield
- Natural disasters can destroy large areas of agricultural land and kill or injure farmers.
- If soil is infertile because the bedrock contains few minerals it can be hard to cultivate land and lead to low yields
LOCATING AN INDUSTRY
- Power/energy: the industry should be near the raw materials or a port/station where the materials come from
- Natural routes: river valleys and flat land is good for transport
- Site and land: flat land & enough space might be needed, cheap land
HUMAN & ECONOMIC FACTORS:
- Labour: quantity (industry might need many people) and/or quality (very-skilled workers, close to a university)
- Capital: (money)
- Markets: size and location of market
- Transport: cost increases when items are bulky, fragile, heavy or perishable
- Government policies
- Leisure facilities: countryside views / amenities
High-tech industries are footloose as they do not need to be near raw materials so are located:
- In a pleasant working environment near to large markets and major transport routes.
- Companies (especially foreign) may be tempted by the government to locate in former industrial areas which often had higher levels of unemployment
FACTORS THAT LEAD TO CHANGES IN TOURIST PATTERNS
- Transport and accessibility: access to various means of transportation such as trains, cars, planes, ships etc.
- Scenery: the landscape and visual appearance of a place.
- Weather: depending on the type of vacation wanted, climate is important e.g. for a ski trip, a cold destination is necessary.
- Accommodation: quality of hotels, camps, resorts, parks and their affordability.
- Amenities: the various recreational, historical, leisure facilities and sites that are offered and can be accessed.
REASONS FOR INCREASE IN TOURISM
- Greater affluence: higher salary + holiday with pay
- Greater mobility: increase in car ownership + more aircraft
- Improved accessibility and transport facilities:
- Better roads
- Larger airports, online reservation, package holidays
- More leisure time: longer vacations, shorter working hours, people work from home, more elderly
- Changing lifestyles: changing fashions, earlier retirements
- Change in recreational activities
- Advertising of holiday destinations: TV and the Internet
- Green tourism
ADVANTAGES OF TOURISM
- Encouraging tourism will give country a chance to improve and increase its GDP per capita rate (overall income is increased.)
- Brings in foreign money, culture, tradition; diversity
- Provides jobs for the unemployed
- Creates more business opportunities
- Positive compliments from tourists will increase the publicity
- To please the tourists, new infrastructure will have to be built such as roads, bridges, buildings etc.
- Cultural festivals may become a tourist attraction
DISADVANTAGES OF TOURISM
- Increased congestion and pollution
- Damage to physical landscape
- Global brands may replace local businesses
- Traditional culture lost
- Inflation affecting locals
- Seasonal unemployment
- A shortage of services e.g. water supplies
- Social/cultural problems
BUTLER’S PRODUCT CYCLE
- Exploration: newly discovered tourist location that only receives a very small amount of tourists.
- Involvement: area becomes better known; tourism is supported by local population and start to build basic tourist infrastructure.
- Development: tourism becomes an important sector of economy. More investment from foreign tour firms. Infrastructure becomes developed.
- Consolidation: Growth continues with resources diverted to tourism sector. Areas may change to the exclusive use of tourists, possibly alienating locals.
- Stagnation: Increased opposition to tourism, tourist facilities may become tired and number of tourist arrival plateaus or declines.
- Rejuvenation: A tourist destination rebrands itself or improves tourist facilities, offers promotions or improves transportation.
- Decline: No improvements are made to the tourist destination and the number of tourists continues to declines.
ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF COAL
- Lasts 300yrs
- now become more efficient
- needed to make coke
- Cost of production high
- produces lot of GH gases
- open cast = visual
- costly to transport
- acid rain