Human Geography

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  • Created on: 21-05-14 17:24

Birth Rates in MEDCs / LEDCs

Low birth rates in Europe:

  • Family planning
  • Women are well educated
  • One or two children's accepted as the normal family size
  • Children are unlikely to contribute to family income
  • Average cost of bringing up a child is really high
  • Governments support and finance family planning

High birth rates in Africa + Middle East:

  • Family planning isnt widely used
  • Women receive little formal education and marry young
  • Socially, families of five or more children are considered normal
  • Children expected to work to support family income
  • Some governments and religions don't approve of birth control
  • Family-planning clinics aren't available in rural areas
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Demographic Transition Model & Population Pyramids

Stage 1: High birth and death rates (Rainforest Tribes)

Stage 2: High birth rates | Decreasing death rates | Natural Increase (Afghanistan)

Stage 3: Decreasing birth rates | Low death rates | High natural increase but getting lower (Brazil)

Stage 4: Low birth rates | Low death rates | Low natural increase (USA)

Stage 5: Low birth rates | Low death rates | Natural decrease (Germany)

LEDC (Like Ethiopia) - Pyramid

  • Wide base: high birth rates
  • Perfect pyramid shape with narrow apex
  • Few people above the age of 65

MEDC (Like UK) - Pyramid

  • Taller at the top: significant numbers above 65
  • Narrow base: low birth rates (Young children and elderly are dependants)
  • Fat in the middle (sorry) middle-aged group is dominant (Middle aged are independent)
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Factors affecting Population Growth

Agricultural Change

Technology improves yields and saves labor. This development made smaller families more desirable (happened around the Industrial Revolution for the UK)

Urbanisation

Rural-to-Urban migration common in poor countries. Children's labour is of less value in cities than in rural area because people seeked better education. 

Education

Levels of educational achievement increase, bringing better standards of living - children become an economic disadvantage. 

Emancipation and Status of Women

Self-explanatory. 

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Problems of Population Growth

In rural areas:

  • Overgrazing and over-cultivation
  • Water, land and air pollution
  • Deforestation, land degradation, soil erosion, desertification 
  • Shortages of clean water supplies
  • Lack of basic public services (sanitation

In urban areas:

  • Overcrowding and the growth of shantytowns 
  • Water, land and air pollution
  • Traffic congestion
  • Inadequate public services

In the country as a whole:

  • Shortages of resources, food and raw materials
  • Unemployment and under-employment
  • Lack of money for basic healthcare and schooling
  • Low living standards and rising crime + unstable governments
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China's 'One Child' Policy

Each couple:

  • Must not marry until their late 20s
  • Must have one successful pregnancy
  • Must be serilised after first child Would receive 5-10% salary rise
  • Would have priority housing, pension, family benefits

Disobeying the rules:

  • 10% salary cut
  • Fine imposed so large it would bankrupt many households
  • Family would have to pay for the education of both children 
  • Second children born abroad aren't allowed to become Chinese citizens.

Problems:

  • Women were forced to have abortions as late as the ninth month
  • Women placed under tremendous pressure from families, workmates and 'Granny Police'
  • Government had power over people's private lives
  • Chinese society preferred sons so = female infanticide
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Kerala's Population Policy

  • Improving education standards and treating girls as equally as boys
  • Providing adult literacy classes in towns and villages
  • Educating people to understand the benefits of smaller families
  • Reducing infant mortality so people no longer need to have so many children
  • Imrpoving child health through vaccination programs
  • Providing free contraception and advice
  • Encouraging a higher age of marriage
  • Allowing maternity leave for the first two babies only
  • Providing extra retirement benefits for those with smaller families
  • Following a land reform programme.

Kerala's 32 million people make up about 3.4% of India's population at 819 people per km2

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Ageing (Greying) Population

Countries have reached Stage 5 and this leads to a fall in dependency ratios between working populations and pensioners over 65. Life expectancy is very high and thinning of the working age groups is predicted. As people get older, their need for state-funded healthcare increases and most European customers provide generous pension schemes - but with fewer working people, where will the money come from? These services are paid for by taxes.

Coping with ageing population:

  • Germany: offered incentives for couples to have more children including tax breaks and up to 1800 euros a month for parents to take time off work. 
  • EU Governments: Encouragement of Immigration
  • Increasing retirement age
  • Forcing people to make higher pension contributions during their working lives
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Rural-Urban Migration

Push factors of rural areas:

  • Poverty
  • Work only in farming
  • Land shortages, overuse of farmland and draught causing food shortages of clean water
  • Remoteness
  • Little hope of change and improvement

Pull factors of urban areas:

  • Better-paid jobs
  • Work in factories, offices and shops
  • Reliable food supplies
  • Schools, hospitals, safe water supply and electricity 
  • Focus of roads, mainly paved roads
  • Always changing: new skyscrapers, road systems, proper shops, dynamic feel to the place

Internal Migration: Within the same country || International Migration: Another country 

Moving out: Emigration || Moving in: Immigrants || Some are Asylum Seekers

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Types of Migration

VOLUNTARY:

  • For work and improved standard of living
  • Joining up with relatives of friends
  • For retirement 

FORCED:

  • After a natural disaster (earthquake, volcano, flood, drought, cyclone)
  • After a human disaster (war, revolution)
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Advantages and Disadvantages of Migration

Advantages:

  • Migrants bring new skills
  • Send money back families where it's spent locally 
  • Transfer of knowledge enables economic development in receiving country
  • Cultural exchange of ideas and lifestyles
  • Earn more money and gain a higher living standard
  • Willing to take jobs not wanted by receiving country's own nationals 

Disadvantages:

  • Loss of labour in home country when young people move
  • Loss of trained people with skills needed in country of birth
  • Increase in racial tension and discrimination
  • Strain on resources for host country
  • Family separation 
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Migration Issues in UK

PROS:

  • Migrants give the UK economy a £4 million boost
  • Rising population provides a bigger tax base
  • Migrants ease recruitment difficulties
  • Employers say eastern Europeans are reliable workers
  • Migrants will swell population because they have higher fertility rates
  • Migrants bring complementary skills with them

CONS:

  • Increase already high demand for new housing
  • Dramatic increase in council housing waiting lists
  • Migrants are victims of unscrupulous gang masters and landlords
  • Foreign workers living in poor-quality housing at the mercy of greedy landlords 
  • Migrants take jobs from local people
  • Social tensions as nation's ethnic mix changes from 9% to a possible 29% in 2050
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Benefits of Big Cities in Developing Countries

Economy

  • Big cities attract investment from overseas companies, encouraging modernisation
  • More value is added by processing and manufacturing than by exporting raw materials

People's Quality of Life

  • Essential service such as safe water supply, sanitation and electricity
  • Secondary education is only available in cities, opening up more chances of acquiring skills

People's Incomes

  • Variety of employment opportunities increases
  • Even self-help work brings in more money than farming
  • More commercial opportunities for farmers to sell produce in city markets

Opportunities for Improvement

  • Improvements in shantytowns can be seen as a step on the ladder for future generations
  • Jobs in the informal setor may enable skills to be acquired = better pay
  • Possibilities exist that aren't present in the countryside 
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CBD + Inner City

CBD:

  • Largest offices and shops including department stores
  • Wildes variety of goods on sales
  • High land values, rents and rates (which helps to explain the many tall buildings built close together)
  • Main place of work by day = traffic congestion 
  • Most accessible location where the main roads meet and has the main railway stations

INNER CITY:

  • Old high-density terraced houses - some 3 or 4 storeys high
  • Old and sometimes abandoned factories and warehouses
  • Areas of derelict land around railway sidings, unused docks and canals
  • High-rise flats 
  • Pockets of smart new developments in many cities around old blocks such as the London Docklands 
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Characteristics of Suburbs

  • Semi-detached houses and small shopping parades along the sides of the main road
  • Modern housing estates behind the main road
  • Some are private estates, others were local authority built, although many have now been bought by residents
  • Houses usually have gardens and garages with areas of open space between them 
  • More recent and expensive housing is in the outer suburbs, where the density of housing tends to be lower. 
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Issue 1: Housing

Brownfield Advantage

  • Easy planning
  • Utilities already provided
  • Roads already exist
  • Near to facilities in town
  • Cuts commuting 

Greenfield Advantage

  • No clearing needed 
  • No road restrictions
  • Cheaper land
  • Space for gardens
  • Pleasant coutryside atmosphere
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Issue 2: Traffic

Car ownership increased because:

  • Cars are cheaper
  • Distance is increasing
  • Wider spread of facilities 

Cars lead to

  • Air pollution
  • Noise pollution
  • Discoloring of buildings
  • Uglier villages

Can be decreased through

  • Park-and-ride schemes
  • Congestion charges
  • Subsidised buses and trams
  • Bikes
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Issue 3: Multicultural Mix

Segregation occurs:

  • People support each other
  • Similar culture and language
  • Specialist facilities like religious buildings
  • People of ethnic backgrounds tend to do similar jobs

How it can be reduced:

  • Improving education about different groups
  • Increasing employment opportunitie of different types in all areas
  • Organising community meetings
  • Providing facilities for everyone to make them feel welcome
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Problems in Inner Cities

Environmental Problems

  • Housing is either old terraces or cheap tower blocks
  • Many derelict buildings - factories warehouses, churches, houses and flats (vandalized)
  • Shortage of open space: most of what exists is wasteland. 

Social Problems

  • Above-average numbers of pensioners, single parent families, ethnic minorities and students
  • Poorer than average levels of health, but higher than average levels of drug abuse and crime
  • Difficult police-community relations

Economic Problems

  • Local employment declined as industries and docks closed
  • Higher than average rates of unemployment, especially for the young and minorities
  • High cost of land compared to suburbs
  • Low income and widespread poverty
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Inner City Strategies

Urban Development Corporations

  • Set up in 1980-90s 
  • Public funding and private investment

Such as London Dockland Development Corporation

City Challenge

  • Local authorities partner with local community
  • Submit a scheme against other councils to get the funds
  • Some funding is from government and private companies 

Such as Hulme, Manchester

Sustainable Communities

  • Communities designed to offer housing, employment and recreation
  • Designed to stay in balance with the environment while offering a good life quality
  • Housing, education, healthcare and security are all high quality
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Developing World Cities

  • Land use less well segregated
  • Planning controls are much weaker and explosive growth means newcomers take over unused land for their homes
  • Squatter settlements consist of slum housing which grows into shantytowns 
  • CBD's in the centre and cheap and medium-price old housing closest around the edge
  • Squatter settlements all around the outside 
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Squatter Settlements

Squatter Settlements are areas of cities which are usually found on the outskirts that are built by people with any materials they can find on land that doesn't belong to them. Informal Sector's part of the economy where unofficial jobs are created by people trying to gain an income.

Have:

  • No infrastructure
  • Poor sanitation
  • Unstable housing made from corrugated iron, cardboard and wood
  • Very little space
  • Mass overcrowding
  • Build up of rubbish
  • High crime rates
  • High death rates.

Habitants have:

  • Poorly paid unreliable jobs
  • No money and uneducated children
  • No healthcare and no privacy
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Improving Squatter Settlements

Self-Help

  • Local authorities offer finance in the form of laons or grant and install water and sanitation.
  • This allows residents to stay with their family whilst improving their quality of life

Site and Service

Land is divided into individual plots with water, sanitation, electricity and a basic track layout being supplied before building by residents begin. They're forced to relocate. 

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Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya

60% of inhabitants in slums. High population density. 100,000 orphans due to HIV/AIDS

Practical Action:

 British charity made cheap roof tiles. Enabled self-help schemes to progress.

UN Human Settlement Programme:

Affordable water and electricity. Two main water pipes provided by the council and World Bank.

Sanitation and Medical Programs: 

Medical facilities provided by charities. Gap year students encouraged to go there to oversee spending and help out. 

Kiberan 15 Year Project:

Project began in 2003 with the aim to re-house thousands of residents. Join venture between Kenya and UN-Habitats. 770 families housed in the first year.


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Problems of Rapid Urbanization in LEDCs

Industrial Accidents:

No regulations and poor planning for expanding cities. This leads to pollution and serious industrial accidents. 

Electronic Waste

People break fown computers to get parts. These parts are melted down for metals. This releases fumes which have serious health risks. 

Untreated Sewage

Flows into rivers along with disease causing microbes. People wash and drink from rivers and suffer serious health issues as a result.

Construction Waste

Construction booms in poorer parts of the world lead to lots of waste. Vast quantities of CO2 and particulates released due to construction.

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Reducing the Problems

Waste Disposal

  • Landfills: Lining a large hole in the ground and filling it with rubbish. 
  • Large companies need to take responsibility for the safe disposal of electric goods
  • Recycling

Air Pollution

  • Reducing emissions
  • Reducing traffic
  • Introducing emission regulations

Water Pollution

  • Regulations set here as well.
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Sustainable Cities

Conserving historic and natural environment:

World Heritage sites. Reducing urban sprawl. Building on Brownfield areas is encouraged.

Reducing and safely disposing of waste

Government sets targets for the quantity of rubbish that must be recycled. Plastic bags should be reduced. Some waste should be incinerated or disposed off at landfills.

Providing adequate open space

Green belts offer open spaces for recreational activity. 

Involving local people

People consulted at all stages through surveys to make them involved. 

Providing an efficient transport system

Efficient, reliable and comfortable public transport must be provided

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Curitiba

Capital city of Parana which is a Brazillian state with a population of 1.8 million. 

Curitiba Master Plan:

  • Control urban sprawl
  • Reducing traffic
  • Developing public transport
  • Preserving the historic sector. 

Bus Rapid Transport System (BRT)

  • Direct bus lines with speedy buses on 5 main routes
  • Inter-district buses which join districts without crossing the city centre
  • Feeder mini busses which pick people up from residential areas

Housing

  • Public housing programme called COHAB: homes not shelters
  • Improves quality of life and provides 50,000 homes
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Globalisation

Globalisation is the increasing links between different countries throughout the world and the greater interdependence that results from this. Interdependence is the relationship between two or more countries usually in terms of trade. 

Advantages to LEDCSs:

  • Raised productivity and employment
  • Less poverty
  • Communications improved
  • Global economic growth
  • Exposed human rights violations
  • Boosted international cooperation

Disadvantages to LEDCs:

  • Depressing wages
  • Insecurity in global market
  • Reckless exploitation of fossil fuels and rainforests
  • Developing countries struggle to compete with developed countries in terms of prices.
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Transnational Corporations (TNCs)

Advantages for TNCs:

  • Cheap labour in LEDCs 
  • Welcomed into LEDCs bc of job offers when jobs are scarce
  • Cheap land and you get the choice of where to put the factories

Disadvantages

  • Lots of hate and protests from locals that make it to the media in the consumers country making it unpopular. + Damage to the factory from violent protests.

They:

  • Provide jobs: multiplier effect
  • Training workforce leads to development of skills and companies bring new technology
  • Infrastructure is improved and export of goods improves trade.

However:

  • Leakage: where profit made by the company are taken out of the country to the country of origin so doesnt benefit the host country at all. 
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Change in Manufacturing

Government Legislation:

  • Setting up assisted areas or enterprise zones where conditions are favorable for new industry
  • Providing advanced factories of different sizes
  • Offer retaining and removal expenses
  • Ensure educational regorm is high on the list in areas such as the four Asian tigers. 
  • Adding tazes to home-produced goods

Health and Safety - Workers have the right to:

  • Know how to do their job safely and be trained to do so
  • Know how to get first aid
  • Know what to do in an emergency
  • Be supplied with protective clothing

Prohibition of Strikes

Tax Incentives and Tax-Free Zones

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China: The New Industrial Giant

Government Legislation:

Foreign investment was encouraged but the government maintained overall control over the economy so that China would gain maximum benefit. Setting up special economic zones paved the way. 

Home Market:

China's large and increasingly wealthy population encourages spending. (+cheap labor)

Olympics Factor:

China showcased the nation in the Olympics and conveyed China as an open, friendly country and an imortant integrated, positive part of te world in the 21st century

Three Gorges Dam:

Industrial development on a large-scale demands large resources of energy. Generates 2/3 of its electricity at coal-fired power stations. HEP accounts for 7% of electricity. The dam generates 22,500 mW when fully operational.

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Increased Demand for Energy

Reasons for Increased Demand:

  • World population growth
  • Increased wealth
  • Technological advances

Impacts of High Demand:

  • Land pollution 
  • Water pollution
  • Air pollution 

Sustainable Energy:

International directives and local initiatives help areas become more sustainable. Encouraging recycling, using Carbon credits, regulating the gas emissions. 

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Effects of Increasing Food Production

Environmentally:

  • Increasing our carboon footprint and food miles because food is travelling a lot more than it used to.
  • This leads to lots of more pollution and energy wasting when local goods are just as good. 
  • Pressure on farmers to meet the demand which means poor quality land will become even poorer and the lack of vegetation cover makes the area prone to soil erosion. 

Politically: Conflict over natural resources like the situation over the River Indus. The river supplies the fertile Punjab which crosses the India-Pakistan border. 

Socially: Water is affected by fertilizers and this causes diseases if water's used

Economically:

  • Growing cash crops and additional cash allows investment but with the demand, there's a need to intensify production which means more money spent on pesticides and ferilizers. These cost money and a vicious circe of paying back loans + interest is set up. 
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