geography theme 6 - development and resource issues

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DEFINE DEVELOPMENT
the process of social, economic and political change which improves the wealth and quality of life of people.
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GIVE 2 LIMITATIONS OF USING GNI PER CAPITA AS A MEASURE OF DEVELOPMENT
1) does not measure social factors such as healthcare availability 2) as it is only an average, it doesn't show how evenly the wealth is spread.
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WHAT IS HDI?
The Human Development Index - figures for life expectancy, literacy and per capita income combined to form a number between 0 and 1 as a measure.
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EXAMPLE OF A LIC
MALWAI - South Central Africa, population 16.8 million, 90% earn less than $2 a day, remote rural areas, weather is unfavourable for many crops, 2.8 million suffer from malnutrition, 30% of children don't go to primary school, AIDS epidemic, landlock
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HOW HAS GLOBAL TRADE LED TO UNEVEN PATTERNS OF DEVELOPMENT?
HICs generally export value goods e.g cars and electronics for a large profit and import cheaper primary goods eg tea and sugar. LICs generally export cheap goods for little profit and import expensive goods-helping them remain in poverty.
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EXPLAIN TRADING BLOCS
groups of countries that work together to promote freee trade between their member states. EG the EU, World Trade Organisation, World Bank.
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CHARACTERISTICS OF NICS.
Rapid economic growth. Rapid industrialisation/urbanisation. Stable governments. Large amounts of foreign direct investment from MNCs. Well developed infrastructure
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DEFINE TARIFF
taxes imposed on imports
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DEFINE QUOTA
limits on the amounts of goods imported
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DEFINE SUBSIDIES
benefits given by the government usually in the form of a cash payment or a tax reduction.
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CONSEQUENCES OF PROTECTIONIST POLICIES IN AN LIC
MALAWI-90% of tea grown is exported to the UK and South Africa. Vulnerable to fluctuations in world trade, tariffs, quotas and drouth. Heavily dependent on aid from IMF and the World Bank - hinders development
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CONSEQUENCES OF PROTECTIONIST POLICIES IN A NIC.
INDIA-
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DEFINE GLOBALISATION
The process by which the words economies, societies and cultures have become integrated through networks of communication, transportation and trade.
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EXPLAIN WHAT LEADS TO INCREASED GLOBALISATION
TECHNOLOGY-internet,social media. COMMUNICATIONS-satellite,language barriers. TRANSPORT-reduced air fares, quicker flights. REMOVAL OF TRADE BARRIERS-healthy relationships between countries. GROWTH OF MNCS
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REASONS WHY MNCs LOCATE PLANTS IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES.
Availability of raw material. Low labour costs. Ability to sell inside trade barriers. Reduced costs of buildings and land. Weaker legislations regarding safety, welfare and protection of the environment.
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IMPACTS OF MNCs LOCATIONS
ADVANTAGES-local benefit-changes technology, jobs, income, infrastructure, multiplier effect. DISAVANTAGES-profits leak back to HIC where MNC are based. lack of restrictions-environment pollution, low wages, poor working conditions, child labour.
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FACTORS THAT LEAD TO UNEVEN DEVELOPMENT
war, political instability, climate, disasters, disease
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MNC IN HIC EXAMPLE
TATA STEEL-Indian MNC, employs 50,000 in the UK. tata bought european factors to sell steel more easily to European countries, avoiding tariffs. competition from cheaper countries eg china means it has considered moving-job&econ-negative multiplier?
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MNC IN NIC EXAMPLE
NIKE-USA MNC,outsources production to VIETNAM,SE Asia, 75million pairs made annually in Vietnam. POS=40,000jobs, pos. multipliers, tax,export brings money. NEG-politics,sweatshops,bad for environment-energy and water used
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THE CONTRIBUTION OF TOURISM TO THE GLOBALISED ECONOMY
1/11 jobs worldwide. important source of income in LICs. Improves economies and encourages environmental conservation
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FACTORS THAT HAVE CONTRIBUYED TO TE GROWTH OF TOURISM
Higher salaries. Modern aircraft, accessible flights. affordable holiday companies. Internet. Stable governments-easier and safer to travel
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CONSEQUENCES OF ENCLAVE TOURISM AND INFORMAL ECONOMU
ENCLAVE TOURISM(everything in one place)-less money spent goes to local economy-leaked back to MNCs eg cruise ships. INFORMAL ECONOMY-eg beach massages, fruit/souvenier sellers- no money goes to government-no development-unreliable source of income.
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IMPACT OF TOURISM ON EMPLOYMENT STRUCTURES.
BENEFITS-generates employment, brings foreign exchange, wealth can be invested. COSTS-jobs are temporary and low paid, local culture destroyed, fragile ecosystems destroyed, increased pollution.
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EXAMPLE OF TOURISM IN NIC
VIETNAM,SE Asia-6million tourists 2015,due to improved transport,image after war,cheap BENEFITS-250,000directly employed 500,000indirectly.$16.4bil in 2015.new national parks built.new services COSTS-profits leak overseas,seasonal jobs,sx work,loss
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HOW DOES INTERNATIONAL AID HELP REDUCE INEQUALITY?
EMERGENCY AID after disaster-food,medication,water. LONG TERM DEVELOPMENT AID-sustained program of aid to improve standards of living eg education. DEVELPOMENT TARGETS- UN (192 countries)Sustainable Development goals by 2030 to encourage development
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EXAMPLE OF AID HELPING TO REDUCE INEQUALITY IN AN LIC
MALAWI-most people are tobacco farmers, rising population means more demand for crops, deforestation,soil erosion. COVAMS project supported by Japanese gov.to educate farmers on soil erosion, train to plough, build barriers,supply fast growing trees
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FAIR TRADE AND BENEFITS?
producer received a guaranteed fair price for their product. benefits- minimum wages, safe working conditions, restrictions on child labour, environment protection, improved schools and healthcare.
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WHY IS THE GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF WATER RISING?
INCREASING POPULATION-more domestic water users-needed to produce food and clothes. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT- water footprint of HICs is much higher than LICs- as more countries develop so does the demand for water.
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WATER FOOTPRINTS
the total volume of water consumed and polluted for the production of the goods and services (embedded water) used by the consumer
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WATER SECURITY
when the entire population of a country has sustainable access to adequate quantities of acceptably clean water. also means that people are protected from water related hazards eg drought
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REASONS FOR INCREASE IN GLOBAL WATER DEMAND
POPULATION GROWTH-1900 1.6billion, 2018 7.6billion.AGRICULTURAL CHANGE- HICs irrigation is mechanises, sprinklers use lots of water. GROWTH OF CONSUMERISM-richer countries have more uses eg dishwashers and leisure eg swimming pools.
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STRATEGIES TO MANAGE WATER SUPPLY
BUILDING DAMS/RESEVOIRS-supplies all year round though expensive. DESALINATION PLANTS-removing salt from seawater though expensive and lots of energy. ABSTRACTION OF GROUNDWATER. WATER CONSERVATION. WATER TRANSFER SCHEMES
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CONSEQUENCES OF WATER MANAGEMENT AT AN INTERNATIONAL SCALE, WHERE RIVERS CROSS NATIONAL BOUNDARIES
water politics eg if water is polluted in one country then it will affect others. EG MEKONG RIVER, VIETNAM. ⅔ OF VIETNAMS WATER SOURCES ORIGINATE OUTSIDE THE COUNTRY-EFFECTS OF DECISIONS UPSTREAM. MEKONG RIVER COMMISSION-dams,protection,reliabile
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CONSEQUENCES OF WATER MANAGEMENT AT A SMALL SCALE
WATERAID IN MALAWI-lots of people with no reliable source of clean water. hand pumps broken. helps repair and improve hygiene practices and train people to maintain their own resources. also builds simple composting toilets to keep water sources clea
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EXAMPLE OF OVER ABSTRACTION OF GROUNDWATER
INDIA-groundwater 65% of all water in agriculture and 85% domestic. reasons for use- some states have extended dry seasons, surface stores are often polluted. FUTURE-build more dams, expensive unpopular. encourage farmers to harvest rainwater.
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WHAT ARE THE CAUSES & CONSEQUENCES OF REGIONAL PATTERNS OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY?
INDIA: FUNDING diff regions health&education-low birth, high life expectancy-quality of life. CONFLICT-less income-crime. CLIMATE DIFFS-impacts farming. DISCRIMINATION-gender inequality-protests-political instability EG MUMABI VS DHARAVI SLUM
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WHAT ARE THE CAUSES & CONSEQUENCES OF REGIONAL PATTERNS OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE UK?
NORTH-SOUTH DIVIDE-research and development spending 2010 south=£3.6billion vs north=£0.3billion. south has major airports. = health in north poorer, house price higher in south. younger in south and london in particular.
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CITY IN THE NORTH EXAMPLE
SHEFFIELD- once important centre of steel industry-declined in 1980s-120,000 jobs lost between 1971-2008. POS-water and air quality improved.regeneration. NEG-derelict land.pressure on greenfield sites.traffic due to commuting as lack of jobs in city
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HOW INVESTMENT CREATES GROWTH IN DEPRIVED AREAS. UK
ENTERPRISE ZONES - desginated areas that provide tax breaks and government support, 48 in total now. Regional Growth Fund (RGF) promotes private sector areas in england most at risk of gov. cuts.
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POSITIVE MULTIPLIERS.
Investment in infrastructure- desirable- new industry set up-other companies attracted- more work- spending power-more money on infrastructure
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NEGATIVE MULTIPLIERS.
poor retail- shop in another town- less income- shops close- less choice-derelict buildings- less tax to local authority- cannot improve standards as no money
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HOW NAtIONAL POLICIES REDUCE REGIONAL INEQUALITY
'Northern Powerhouse'-economic boost to North to attract investment. TRANSPORT LINKS- High Speed 2 train connecting ldn and brum-encourage travel and investment. RELOCATION such as BBC built MediaCityUK in Manchester, influencing many other companies
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GIVE 2 LIMITATIONS OF USING GNI PER CAPITA AS A MEASURE OF DEVELOPMENT

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1) does not measure social factors such as healthcare availability 2) as it is only an average, it doesn't show how evenly the wealth is spread.

Card 3

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WHAT IS HDI?

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Card 4

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EXAMPLE OF A LIC

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Card 5

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HOW HAS GLOBAL TRADE LED TO UNEVEN PATTERNS OF DEVELOPMENT?

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