Agriculture Geography GCSE

Georgraphy Gcse Agriculture notes. 

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  • Created on: 03-06-11 14:09
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Types of farming
Arable- growing of crops, rice
Market gardening/horticulture-growing of perishable goods and flowers (strawberries, raspberries,
tomatoes, cherries)
Hill sheep farming- sheep (meat and wool)
Pastoral farming- farming of animals (camels, dairy cattle)
Mixed farming- crops and animals
Commercial farming- products are sold for a profit/income
Subsistence farming- farming of crops and animals to use by your family or immediate tribe
Nomadic farming-farming on the move (camels and other animals are taken with them on a regular
basis with places were water has a large vegetation to grow, particularly common in Africa.)
Extensive farming- these have low inputs and low outputs per hectare (measure of land). A large
yield is produced by covering large areas of often low grade land, but with few workers, e.g. hill
sheep farming and the prairies of Canada.
Intensive farming- e.g. horticulture in the Netherlands and rice farming in south East Asia. This involves
a high level of input to achieve a high yield per hectare. This input can either be technology or labour.
Arable faming Dairying Hill sheep Market
farming gardening
Definition Growing if Rearing of Sheep rearing Growing fruit,
cereals, cattle for milk for meat and vegetables
vegetables wool and flowers
and animal
Classification Commercial, Commercial, Commercial, Commercial,
intensive, intensive, extensive, intensive,
arable pastoral pastoral arable
Location East and West of Upland areas South and
south, east Britain and of Britain, e.g. east of
Anglia, east close to large Pennines, lake England and
England cities district close to large
Physical Flat relief; Gentle relief; High, steep Long hours of
factors fertile fertile soils; relief; thin sunshine;
well-drained high rainfall infertile soils; most other
soils; warm for grass high rainfall factors are
summers; growth; mild (over controlled,
rainfall- under winters (over 1000mm);
650mm 6'C) low
(some in temperatures
growing unsuitable for
season); crops
winter frosts
to break up

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Human Large market Access to Remote from Access to
factors in south east; large large motorways
good markets; milk markets; and airports;
transport subsides up to limited labour; large labour
networks; the 1980s EU subsidies and capital
benefits from when quotas and grants input
EU subsidies introduced
Farming systems
Farming is an industry and operates like other industries with inputs and into the farm. Processes
which take place on the farm, and outputs from the farm.…read more

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Horticulture/ market gardening in the west of the Netherlands
This is an example of intensive, commercial farming in the EU
Horticulture involves the farming of fruit, flowers and vegetables and is an intensive type of farming.
Most of the western Netherlands, stretching from Rotterdam to beyond Amsterdam, is very low
lying and has been reclaimed from the sea, at great expense. (See population notes `expanding the
resource base by land reclamation.…read more

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The Deloitte report suggested that income from these non-food activities is rising, up by £35 per
hectare, but that the expected windfall from diversification may be illusory, moving into a different
business area creates significant problem; the sorts of skills needed to deal with the bureaucracy,
marketing and face to face customers service may be very different to the sorts of skills many
farmers already have. Many of the activities farms could provide take away precious time from the
main farming activities.…read more

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Maintain employment in agricultural areas
Under the CAP farmers were given guaranteed prices for their produce and huge
surpluses (too much) in a range of products, known as "mountains and lakes" occurred.
As farmers were paid to increase food output wetlands, hedgerows, marshes and
moorland were ploughed up.
Between 1945 and 1995 40% of hedgerows were removed. Hedgerows act as a natural
windbreak between fields, without which wind speeds increase leading to soil erosion.…read more

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Capital: often little
profit to reinvest.
Politics: EU subsidies
and grants help some
farmers to have a
minimum standard of
Machinery: quad
Characteristics of hill sheep farming.
There are three zones of land use:
The fell: the tops of the hills over 300m altitude- sheep graze on this open land in the
The intake or lower slopes: divided into fields by dry stone walls, some pasture is improved
by adding drainage and fertilisers.…read more

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Some farms could not survive and have been sold-often as second homes.
Hill farming (extensive commercial farming)
Hill farming takes place in most areas of highland Britain. Key areas are the NW highlands, the Lake
District region and the Pennines.
Case study- the riding, Northumberland/north Pennines
The farm covers 385 hectares and extends from the flood plain of the river North Tyne on to the
surrounding.…read more

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The responses to the environmental degradation caused by modern
farming methods
Environmental stewardship: basics
Environmental stewardship (ES) is a government scheme that offers financial rewards for good
stewardship and management of the land to improve the quality of the environment
ES is delivered by natural England on behalf of the Department for Environment, Food and rural
Affairs (Defra) as part of the Rural Development Programme for England and is available to farmers
and land managers in England.…read more

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Each part of the UK has different SPS arrangements. This guide covers England only. For info about
the SPS in Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland, you should contact the relevant agricultural
How does the payment scheme work?
To be eligible for single payment scheme (SPS) payments you must:
Be a farmer, as defined by the European Union (EU)
Have eligible land at your disposal on 15 May of the Scheme year- this land must be eligible
for SPS for the entire calendar year.…read more


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