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Agriculture
Types of farming

Arable- growing of crops, rice
Market gardening/horticulture-growing of perishable goods and flowers (strawberries, raspberries,
tomatoes, cherries)
Hill sheep farming- sheep (meat and wool)
Pastoral farming- farming of animals (camels, dairy cattle)
Mixed farming- crops and animals

Commercial farming- products are sold for a profit/income
Subsistence farming-…

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soil and kill
pests
Human Large market Access to Remote from Access to
factors in south east; large large motorways
good markets; milk markets; and airports;
transport subsides up to limited labour; large labour
networks; the 1980s EU subsidies and capital
benefits from when quotas and grants input
EU subsidies…

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Horticulture/ market gardening in the west of the Netherlands
This is an example of intensive, commercial farming in the EU

Horticulture involves the farming of fruit, flowers and vegetables and is an intensive type of farming.
Most of the western Netherlands, stretching from Rotterdam to beyond Amsterdam, is very low…

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The Deloitte report suggested that income from these non-food activities is rising, up by £35 per
hectare, but that the expected windfall from diversification may be illusory, moving into a different
business area creates significant problem; the sorts of skills needed to deal with the bureaucracy,
marketing and face to…

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Maintain employment in agricultural areas

Under the CAP farmers were given guaranteed prices for their produce and huge
surpluses (too much) in a range of products, known as "mountains and lakes" occurred.
As farmers were paid to increase food output wetlands, hedgerows, marshes and
moorland were ploughed up.

Hedgerows

Between…

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Capital: often little
profit to reinvest.
Politics: EU subsidies
and grants help some
farmers to have a
minimum standard of
living.
Machinery: quad
bikes


Characteristics of hill sheep farming.

There are three zones of land use:

The fell: the tops of the hills over 300m altitude- sheep graze on this…

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Some farms could not survive and have been sold-often as second homes.

Hill farming (extensive commercial farming)


Hill farming takes place in most areas of highland Britain. Key areas are the NW highlands, the Lake
District region and the Pennines.

Case study- the riding, Northumberland/north Pennines

The farm covers 385…

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The responses to the environmental degradation caused by modern
farming methods

Environmental stewardship: basics
Introduction

Environmental stewardship (ES) is a government scheme that offers financial rewards for good
stewardship and management of the land to improve the quality of the environment

ES is delivered by natural England on behalf of…

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Each part of the UK has different SPS arrangements. This guide covers England only. For info about
the SPS in Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland, you should contact the relevant agricultural
department.

How does the payment scheme work?

To be eligible for single payment scheme (SPS) payments you must:

Be…

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