Geography

The Human Environment

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The DTM

Stage 1: When birth rates and death rates are very high.

Stage 2: Birth rate are high and death rates fall rapidly

Stage 3: Birth rates fall rapidly while death rates continue to fall.

Stage 4: Both remain low

Stage 5: Death rate is higher than birth rate so there is a natural decrease.

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Population Pyramids

Population pyramids: Concave/ Expansive/ Stationary/ Contractive.

High birth rate; rapid fall in each upward age group due to high death rate; short life expectancy.

High birth rate/  fall in death rate as more living in middle age; slightly longer life expectancy.

Declining birth rate; low death rate; more people to a greater age.

Low birth rate; low death rate; higher depedancy ratio; longer life expectancy.

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A youthful population

Negative:

  • Disease among children is common, leading to death (lack of medical equipment).
  • Not enoigh education/ health  care or food - people cant get jobs.

Positive:

  • Children can look after their parents so less money is spent on the elderly.
  • There is a large, active workplace for economic growth. India/ China

 

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An ageing population

Positive:

  • More people have time for leisure./ unemployment rates will be low/ elderly can play an important part in the community.

Negative:

  • The amount spent on education might have to be cut to finance the elderly/ not enough health care/ cant afford pensions - increases the taxes paid - raise the age of retirement - abolish state pensions/ larger demand on housing.

Sweden/ Uk and Japan.

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Consequences

AGEING

  • Great demand for sheltered housing.
  • A need for smaller homes.
  • Crowded areas.
  • Expenditure rising.
  • Spending on disables access.
  • More buses needed wi low access steps.
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Consequences 2

Youthful

  • Not enough schools.
  • Families forced to live in unsuitables places.
  • Growing need for peadiatricians.
  • Not enough carers.
  • Schools forced to close.
  • More health centres needed with immunisations.
  • Not enough workers.
  • More widwifes needed/ teachers needed.
  • Encourage immigration.

 

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UK plans

Encourage higher birth rate (to make having children enen easier).

  • Raise family allowances.
  • Improve childcare.
  • Improve state childcare.
  • Longer maternity leave.
  • Paternity leave increased.

Accept/ Encourage Immigration.

  • Issue work permits.
  • Remove immigration barriers.
  • Advertise for key workerss abroad.

 

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UK plans .....

Reduce Pensions Burden:

  • Raise retirement age from 65-70.
  • Make workers take out their own pensions.

Cutting Expenses:

  • Resources will  be transferred from the youth to the elderly.
  • Schools with the falling roots.
  • Youth clubs closed.
  • Childrens hospital wards closed.

 

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France plans

Encourage higher birth rates;

  • Mothers can take 16 weeks paid maternity leave for the first child.
  • 26 months parental leave.
  • Pledging more money for families with three children.
  • Child care facilities subsided
  • Pre-school programmes.

Immigration:

  • Intregated and educated.
  • When they reach a mature age they get to choose what they would like to do.
  • 

Pensions - raise retirement age/ deductions from your pensions.

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Japan plans

Cost:

  • Not enough money to pay for the elderly and the youth as more money is being spent on the elderly.

Pensions:

  • Raise in retirement age.
  • Higher contributions by those in work.

Healthcare:

  • Taxes/ hurry up and die scheme

Workforce:

  • Increase retiement age.
  • Allow immigrants.
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India's Population Problems

The Problem: In 1950 the government was concerned that the birth rate was growing rapidly. A woman would have 6 children a lifetime. India's government thought that this would set the country back. Target - to get the birth rate down to 21 and the fertility rate down to 2.1.

First policies - In 1954,  the goverment started encouraging and offering contraceptive advice/ in 1970's sterilisation was forced/ 8.26 million performed between 1976-77/ a policy to encourage people to have two children led to abortions, especially girls/ they  were critisced for this.

Modern policies: Better health care and welfare/ small families are encouraged/ cash payments for the payment of two girls/ women are then sterilised/ 2005 - farmers were threatened that if they had more than two children, they would cut off irrigation/ however india's prime minister disagreed. 

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Kerala - South West India

They have a birth/ fertility rate of 1.8 close to some European countries/ 1 billion citizens - lowest birth rate in developing world.

Children were becoming fewer because - good health, less children dying so less children born - education - children go to school - money, people cant afford many children - and women are getting sterilised.

Targets for 2010 - knowledge of contraception for all women - all births deliverd by trained workers/ all children immunised against diseases - infant mortality rate decreased to 30 per 100 from 56 in 2005 - all births, marriages and deaths had to be registered - Law that women could not marry before 18 - all children entitled to primary education. 

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Mauritius

Location -  is situated at the East of Africa and due-East of Madagascar, in the Indian ocean, south of India.

Population Problems - In the 1950's had the fastest growing population on Earth/ poor country/ only survived on sugar cane it grew/ needed more land/ doesnt have 38 miles long/ they said the population would grow from 500,000 to 3 million in 2000.

The Solution - family planning scheme decreasing 6 children per family to 3 - however population continued to grow - started to expand on what was possible, they planted potatoes and wheat inbetween rows of sugar cane - multi,national countries invested in the land due to tax releif.

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China

The Problems - rapidly growing and the government were worried that there were not enough resources, 1/5 of worlds population lived in China.

The One Child Policy - Every couple were only allowed one child:

Sticks/Forcing - people checking up on you at work - granny police (home) - groups on people checking on you - registration cards, if you have one you can have a child if you dont or lose it you cant. - cant get a job if you have a second child or healthcare/ pay back all first child benefits.

Carrots/ encouragements - 5%/10% salary bonus for one child - a 10% salary reduction for two children - no extra space allocation - priority in education and healthcare for "only" children.

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China ....

How effective - society complying allowed this policy continued -

Effective - the population had been limited (800 million not born).

Not effective - cruel to families/ constantly being watched/ girls killed or abandoned.

Unforseen problems - not enough girls/ demanding children/ need workers they havnt got/ top heavy population.

Policy adapted - in areas where they need more wokers some familes are allowed mor kids - rising wealth people will pay for a second child - Shanghai has started to allow it.

It is morally wrong, people are forced into doing things they dont want to. Constantly watched and against rights.

 

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China and the UK

China is densely populated in some areas due to the  rivers running through it - the Huang river - the Yangtze river - the Xi Jiang river. Also it is sparesely populated around the Atai Mountains, the Taka desert, th Gobi desert and the Kunlun mountains - and the Tibet Plateau.

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Migration

Migration is the movement of people from one place to another.

Voluntary - move out of free will - Forced - have no choice - (natural disaster or  war)

Temporary - intending to go home in the future -  (university/ commuters)

Permanent - moving forever

Short term - last for usually a year (commuters/ universities/ holidays)

Long term - Permanent (pensioners)

National - moving from one part of a country to another.

International - moving to another country.

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National and International Why???/ Flows of popula

PUSH - not enough jobs - low wages - poor educational opportunities - war with another country - civil war - natural disasers.

PULL - to find a better job - better healthcare - higher wages - better education - better all-round standard of living - family or friends moved - safety.

Flows of population:

Migration into Europe:

Colonial Connections - attract people to the farmer colonial "power" - india - britain - france

Need for labour after world war two - meant migrant workers were encouraged.

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Migration into countries

  • Uk - India/ Bangladesh/ Pakistan
  • Netherlands - Indonesia/ Surinam
  • Germany - Turkey/ Africa/ Asia
  • Spain/ Portugal - Argentina/ Uraguay/ Brazil
  • France - Africa/ Algeria/ Morocco/ Tunisia/ Senegal/ Asia/ Vietnam

UK Case Study:

  • When the British Empir was at its most powerful, more than a third of the worlds population was under british control. The vast majority of migrants are from former colonies.
  • Bangladeshi's found work on public transport.
  • West Indians found work in health services.
  • Pakistani citizens were recruited to work in textile mills.
  • Indian citizens - doctors.
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Social/ Economic Impacts on the host country (UK)

Social - impact on catholic churches masses in polish - Cambidgeshire, police force need translators whch have cost £600,00/ developments of polish shops, cultural mix/ uk workforce younger, ease pension burden/ scotland baby boom/ keeping schools going, some schools teach polish history.

Economical - welfare state, 27,000 child benefits improved/ add to consumer spending/ are prepared to do jobs other UK workers ar not.

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Social/ Economical Impacts on origin

Social - the birth rate decreased due to young workers leaving/ many villages are suffering from depopulation/ break down of old-fashioned family units/ increase in salaries due to less workers, government at a loss, increase in salaries, can afford more/ anaesthetics migrated meant doctors left had to perform more operations.

Economical - Poland is encouraging Poles to return with higher salaries/ 2007, monthly salaries increased by 9%/ 2005, 10% of jobs in construction could not be filled, 2007 figures had risen to 35%/ some return with new goods and make money in poland/ a new magazine has been launched offering £5,000 for workers to return/ they still communicate, costs users

Positive

Negative

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Factors enabling poplation movements

Technology:

  • 1998 - 9% of the UK households had access to the internet, 2005 - 53%.
  • Web-cam - people can keep in touch
  • Google - can pre-book and buy what they want before they go.
  • People have a great awareness of the world, want to experience new places and cultures.
  • People can book cheap flights and transportation.
  • People can buy products on the internet.
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Transportation/ Relaxation of boundaries

  • Budget airlines, make travelling cheaper.
  • Cheap flights, polish workers can commute, monday to friday.
  • People can return and visit family.
  • Improvements in road and rail networks, easier to move around. The opening of the channel tunnel, many more people on holiday.

 

  • When the EU consists of few countries, movement freely was possible.
  • Since it has grown, tightening of boundaries has taken place.
  • The UK does not allow unskilled migrants into the UK, except for ones from the 25 EU countries. Skilled migrants have to collect 75 points to enter.
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Reasons for short-term population flows

Medical:

  • It is becoming more common for UK residents to travel abroad to have operations, both medical and cosmetic.
  • In 2007, 50,000 people left the UK to have thes medical treatments.
  • Cape town, south africa - surgery is affordable, highly professional/ great tourist attraction. Travel for holidays, have your surgery and return.
  • Pull - cheaper/ well-stocked and clean/ better patient care/ package holiday.
  • Push - unhappy with NHS/ poorly maintained hospitals/ british policies are perceived to be dirty/ hospitals are closing down so there will be a bigger distance to travel/ patients feel like there is a production line/private health care is expensive.
  • Other - budget airlines/ greater awareness/ development of the internet/ease of travel.
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Sport

  • Circular flows - athletes travelling to the olympics or other sports that require players to compete around the globe.
  • Football - Require players to stay in one country for the period of their contract. Work permits are granted to plays who have completed a umber of matches for their national side, which have to be ranked in the top 70 countries.
  • Case Studies - Tottenham player ROman Pavyluchenko from Spartex Moscow, Russia.
  • Pull - More money/ he wanted to play with and compete against the best players/ to live in London for the entertainment.
  • Push - Low wages/ Poor competition/ unsatisfactory quality of life.
  • Limiting factors - have to move your family with you.
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Tourism

Travel for recreational leisure or business purposes, temprary-short term migration.

  • Pull - Climate (Mediteranean hot and dry/ Alps in france - cold and snow - adventure)  //  Transport (accessibility/ eurtotunnel link/ channel tunnel/ new airports/ expanding motorway networks. - Bergerac airport connects to the Perigord region and the A75 autoroute). // Physical attractions - Tideless Mediterranean Sea where fashionabl seaside resorts have developed, Nice and Juan les Pins. //  Human attractions - (theme parks-tourist attractions-food).
  • 
  • Push - Economic (average worker in the UK can afford holidays) // Climate - (british always perceive british climate as bad.) // Media - (several TV programmes at going on holidays) // (make awareness of what people are missing) // make places sound appealing with adverbs.
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Economis Migrants

People from the ten EU states can come at get jobs in the UK.

Motives - increase in wealth/ coincide with seasonal jobs - vegetable picking/ more educated.

  • Less educated often dont speak English/ employers can take advantage. // available classes.
  • Poland is rural, adjust to city // communities build for them (Acton and Bolham).
  • Houses are larger in Poland // integrate into English society spend less time in flat.
  • The exchange rate can fluctuate, if it drops money will  be worth less in Poland. // can change.
  • Education systems, children find it difficult to adjust // polish history taught, saturday schools, polish language taought incase they return.
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Retirement Migration

Consequences on Spain:

  • Population Structure - ageying, dependant population on the active.
  • Heath Care - Increased - £800,000,000. migrants under 65 have to pay.
  • Culture - brands are being sold and people had to learn English to be able to communicate with customer.
  • Housing Developments - Caused damage to coastline // new laws/ no private housing allowed, if they decide to knock a house down they can.
  • Water - Areas of Spain have a shortage of water - been increase in demand - golf courses and hotels buitl require more water, people also have swimming pools.
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Why they move????

  • AWARENESS OF DESTINATION - holidays and the internet give awareness.
  • HEALTH CARE - free state pension in UK/ free in spain. Confident.
  • LEISURE FACILITIES - Availability on sports, further advance technology.
  • PROPERTY MARKET - House prices in the UK have risen/ less expensive in Spain.
  • LIFESTYLE - Attracted to the slower pace of life, they have witnessed on holidays "lower crime rates".
  • COST OF LIVING - still recieve pensions/ taxed by spanish authorities/ lower.
  • CLIMATE - Temperature is usually 10 degrees.
  • EXPATRIATE COMMUNITY - to move with people in the same position.
  • COMMUNICATION NETWORKS - short journey, internet and budget airlines.
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Comments

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