Stage 1: When birth rates and death rates are very high.
Stage 2: Birth rate are high and death rates fall rapidly
Stage 3: Birth rates fall rapidly while death rates continue to fall.
Stage 4: Both remain low
Stage 5: Death rate is higher than birth rate so there is a natural decrease.
Population pyramids: Concave/ Expansive/ Stationary/ Contractive.
High birth rate; rapid fall in each upward age group due to high death rate; short life expectancy.
High birth rate/ fall in death rate as more living in middle age; slightly longer life expectancy.
Declining birth rate; low death rate; more people to a greater age.
Low birth rate; low death rate; higher depedancy ratio; longer life expectancy.
A youthful population
- Disease among children is common, leading to death (lack of medical equipment).
- Not enoigh education/ health care or food - people cant get jobs.
- Children can look after their parents so less money is spent on the elderly.
- There is a large, active workplace for economic growth. India/ China
An ageing population
- More people have time for leisure./ unemployment rates will be low/ elderly can play an important part in the community.
- The amount spent on education might have to be cut to finance the elderly/ not enough health care/ cant afford pensions - increases the taxes paid - raise the age of retirement - abolish state pensions/ larger demand on housing.
Sweden/ Uk and Japan.
- Great demand for sheltered housing.
- A need for smaller homes.
- Crowded areas.
- Expenditure rising.
- Spending on disables access.
- More buses needed wi low access steps.
- Not enough schools.
- Families forced to live in unsuitables places.
- Growing need for peadiatricians.
- Not enough carers.
- Schools forced to close.
- More health centres needed with immunisations.
- Not enough workers.
- More widwifes needed/ teachers needed.
- Encourage immigration.
Encourage higher birth rate (to make having children enen easier).
- Raise family allowances.
- Improve childcare.
- Improve state childcare.
- Longer maternity leave.
- Paternity leave increased.
Accept/ Encourage Immigration.
- Issue work permits.
- Remove immigration barriers.
- Advertise for key workerss abroad.
UK plans .....
Reduce Pensions Burden:
- Raise retirement age from 65-70.
- Make workers take out their own pensions.
- Resources will be transferred from the youth to the elderly.
- Schools with the falling roots.
- Youth clubs closed.
- Childrens hospital wards closed.
Encourage higher birth rates;
- Mothers can take 16 weeks paid maternity leave for the first child.
- 26 months parental leave.
- Pledging more money for families with three children.
- Child care facilities subsided
- Pre-school programmes.
- Intregated and educated.
- When they reach a mature age they get to choose what they would like to do.
Pensions - raise retirement age/ deductions from your pensions.
- Not enough money to pay for the elderly and the youth as more money is being spent on the elderly.
- Raise in retirement age.
- Higher contributions by those in work.
- Taxes/ hurry up and die scheme
- Increase retiement age.
- Allow immigrants.
India's Population Problems
The Problem: In 1950 the government was concerned that the birth rate was growing rapidly. A woman would have 6 children a lifetime. India's government thought that this would set the country back. Target - to get the birth rate down to 21 and the fertility rate down to 2.1.
First policies - In 1954, the goverment started encouraging and offering contraceptive advice/ in 1970's sterilisation was forced/ 8.26 million performed between 1976-77/ a policy to encourage people to have two children led to abortions, especially girls/ they were critisced for this.
Modern policies: Better health care and welfare/ small families are encouraged/ cash payments for the payment of two girls/ women are then sterilised/ 2005 - farmers were threatened that if they had more than two children, they would cut off irrigation/ however india's prime minister disagreed.
Kerala - South West India
They have a birth/ fertility rate of 1.8 close to some European countries/ 1 billion citizens - lowest birth rate in developing world.
Children were becoming fewer because - good health, less children dying so less children born - education - children go to school - money, people cant afford many children - and women are getting sterilised.
Targets for 2010 - knowledge of contraception for all women - all births deliverd by trained workers/ all children immunised against diseases - infant mortality rate decreased to 30 per 100 from 56 in 2005 - all births, marriages and deaths had to be registered - Law that women could not marry before 18 - all children entitled to primary education.
Location - is situated at the East of Africa and due-East of Madagascar, in the Indian ocean, south of India.
Population Problems - In the 1950's had the fastest growing population on Earth/ poor country/ only survived on sugar cane it grew/ needed more land/ doesnt have 38 miles long/ they said the population would grow from 500,000 to 3 million in 2000.
The Solution - family planning scheme decreasing 6 children per family to 3 - however population continued to grow - started to expand on what was possible, they planted potatoes and wheat inbetween rows of sugar cane - multi,national countries invested in the land due to tax releif.
The Problems - rapidly growing and the government were worried that there were not enough resources, 1/5 of worlds population lived in China.
The One Child Policy - Every couple were only allowed one child:
Sticks/Forcing - people checking up on you at work - granny police (home) - groups on people checking on you - registration cards, if you have one you can have a child if you dont or lose it you cant. - cant get a job if you have a second child or healthcare/ pay back all first child benefits.
Carrots/ encouragements - 5%/10% salary bonus for one child - a 10% salary reduction for two children - no extra space allocation - priority in education and healthcare for "only" children.
How effective - society complying allowed this policy continued -
Effective - the population had been limited (800 million not born).
Not effective - cruel to families/ constantly being watched/ girls killed or abandoned.
Unforseen problems - not enough girls/ demanding children/ need workers they havnt got/ top heavy population.
Policy adapted - in areas where they need more wokers some familes are allowed mor kids - rising wealth people will pay for a second child - Shanghai has started to allow it.
It is morally wrong, people are forced into doing things they dont want to. Constantly watched and against rights.
China and the UK
China is densely populated in some areas due to the rivers running through it - the Huang river - the Yangtze river - the Xi Jiang river. Also it is sparesely populated around the Atai Mountains, the Taka desert, th Gobi desert and the Kunlun mountains - and the Tibet Plateau.
Migration is the movement of people from one place to another.
Voluntary - move out of free will - Forced - have no choice - (natural disaster or war)
Temporary - intending to go home in the future - (university/ commuters)
Permanent - moving forever
Short term - last for usually a year (commuters/ universities/ holidays)
Long term - Permanent (pensioners)
National - moving from one part of a country to another.
International - moving to another country.
National and International Why???/ Flows of popula
PUSH - not enough jobs - low wages - poor educational opportunities - war with another country - civil war - natural disasers.
PULL - to find a better job - better healthcare - higher wages - better education - better all-round standard of living - family or friends moved - safety.
Flows of population:
Migration into Europe:
Colonial Connections - attract people to the farmer colonial "power" - india - britain - france
Need for labour after world war two - meant migrant workers were encouraged.
Migration into countries
- Uk - India/ Bangladesh/ Pakistan
- Netherlands - Indonesia/ Surinam
- Germany - Turkey/ Africa/ Asia
- Spain/ Portugal - Argentina/ Uraguay/ Brazil
- France - Africa/ Algeria/ Morocco/ Tunisia/ Senegal/ Asia/ Vietnam
UK Case Study:
- When the British Empir was at its most powerful, more than a third of the worlds population was under british control. The vast majority of migrants are from former colonies.
- Bangladeshi's found work on public transport.
- West Indians found work in health services.
- Pakistani citizens were recruited to work in textile mills.
- Indian citizens - doctors.
Social/ Economic Impacts on the host country (UK)
Social - impact on catholic churches masses in polish - Cambidgeshire, police force need translators whch have cost £600,00/ developments of polish shops, cultural mix/ uk workforce younger, ease pension burden/ scotland baby boom/ keeping schools going, some schools teach polish history.
Economical - welfare state, 27,000 child benefits improved/ add to consumer spending/ are prepared to do jobs other UK workers ar not.
Social/ Economical Impacts on origin
Social - the birth rate decreased due to young workers leaving/ many villages are suffering from depopulation/ break down of old-fashioned family units/ increase in salaries due to less workers, government at a loss, increase in salaries, can afford more/ anaesthetics migrated meant doctors left had to perform more operations.
Economical - Poland is encouraging Poles to return with higher salaries/ 2007, monthly salaries increased by 9%/ 2005, 10% of jobs in construction could not be filled, 2007 figures had risen to 35%/ some return with new goods and make money in poland/ a new magazine has been launched offering £5,000 for workers to return/ they still communicate, costs users
Factors enabling poplation movements
- 1998 - 9% of the UK households had access to the internet, 2005 - 53%.
- Web-cam - people can keep in touch
- Google - can pre-book and buy what they want before they go.
- People have a great awareness of the world, want to experience new places and cultures.
- People can book cheap flights and transportation.
- People can buy products on the internet.
Transportation/ Relaxation of boundaries
- Budget airlines, make travelling cheaper.
- Cheap flights, polish workers can commute, monday to friday.
- People can return and visit family.
- Improvements in road and rail networks, easier to move around. The opening of the channel tunnel, many more people on holiday.
- When the EU consists of few countries, movement freely was possible.
- Since it has grown, tightening of boundaries has taken place.
- The UK does not allow unskilled migrants into the UK, except for ones from the 25 EU countries. Skilled migrants have to collect 75 points to enter.
Reasons for short-term population flows
- It is becoming more common for UK residents to travel abroad to have operations, both medical and cosmetic.
- In 2007, 50,000 people left the UK to have thes medical treatments.
- Cape town, south africa - surgery is affordable, highly professional/ great tourist attraction. Travel for holidays, have your surgery and return.
- Pull - cheaper/ well-stocked and clean/ better patient care/ package holiday.
- Push - unhappy with NHS/ poorly maintained hospitals/ british policies are perceived to be dirty/ hospitals are closing down so there will be a bigger distance to travel/ patients feel like there is a production line/private health care is expensive.
- Other - budget airlines/ greater awareness/ development of the internet/ease of travel.
- Circular flows - athletes travelling to the olympics or other sports that require players to compete around the globe.
- Football - Require players to stay in one country for the period of their contract. Work permits are granted to plays who have completed a umber of matches for their national side, which have to be ranked in the top 70 countries.
- Case Studies - Tottenham player ROman Pavyluchenko from Spartex Moscow, Russia.
- Pull - More money/ he wanted to play with and compete against the best players/ to live in London for the entertainment.
- Push - Low wages/ Poor competition/ unsatisfactory quality of life.
- Limiting factors - have to move your family with you.
Travel for recreational leisure or business purposes, temprary-short term migration.
- Pull - Climate (Mediteranean hot and dry/ Alps in france - cold and snow - adventure) // Transport (accessibility/ eurtotunnel link/ channel tunnel/ new airports/ expanding motorway networks. - Bergerac airport connects to the Perigord region and the A75 autoroute). // Physical attractions - Tideless Mediterranean Sea where fashionabl seaside resorts have developed, Nice and Juan les Pins. // Human attractions - (theme parks-tourist attractions-food).
- Push - Economic (average worker in the UK can afford holidays) // Climate - (british always perceive british climate as bad.) // Media - (several TV programmes at going on holidays) // (make awareness of what people are missing) // make places sound appealing with adverbs.
People from the ten EU states can come at get jobs in the UK.
Motives - increase in wealth/ coincide with seasonal jobs - vegetable picking/ more educated.
- Less educated often dont speak English/ employers can take advantage. // available classes.
- Poland is rural, adjust to city // communities build for them (Acton and Bolham).
- Houses are larger in Poland // integrate into English society spend less time in flat.
- The exchange rate can fluctuate, if it drops money will be worth less in Poland. // can change.
- Education systems, children find it difficult to adjust // polish history taught, saturday schools, polish language taought incase they return.
Consequences on Spain:
- Population Structure - ageying, dependant population on the active.
- Heath Care - Increased - £800,000,000. migrants under 65 have to pay.
- Culture - brands are being sold and people had to learn English to be able to communicate with customer.
- Housing Developments - Caused damage to coastline // new laws/ no private housing allowed, if they decide to knock a house down they can.
- Water - Areas of Spain have a shortage of water - been increase in demand - golf courses and hotels buitl require more water, people also have swimming pools.
Why they move????
- AWARENESS OF DESTINATION - holidays and the internet give awareness.
- HEALTH CARE - free state pension in UK/ free in spain. Confident.
- LEISURE FACILITIES - Availability on sports, further advance technology.
- PROPERTY MARKET - House prices in the UK have risen/ less expensive in Spain.
- LIFESTYLE - Attracted to the slower pace of life, they have witnessed on holidays "lower crime rates".
- COST OF LIVING - still recieve pensions/ taxed by spanish authorities/ lower.
- CLIMATE - Temperature is usually 10 degrees.
- EXPATRIATE COMMUNITY - to move with people in the same position.
- COMMUNICATION NETWORKS - short journey, internet and budget airlines.