Gender and Globalisation V.2

What is 'Gender' according to the feminist international relations theorist J. Ann Ticker?
'A set of socially and culturally constructed characteristics that vary across time and place (Tickner, 2011: 265).’
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What is 'sex'?
The biological distinction between male and female.
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What is the central point between 'Gender' and 'Sex'?
The central point is that whilst male and females are different biologically, this biological difference is not the same as the social distinctions made between them.
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To underscore this point of difference between gender and sex, what has been the primary assessment that has been given to women across societies?
Childbearing/caring
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To underscore this point of difference between gender and sex, what has been the primary assessment that has been given to men across societies?
That as, generally, physically stronger, has deemed them to best in accessing resources, for instance.
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Over time, what did these social distinctions between men and women begin to do?
produce and reproduce separate and different social gender binaries of males and females through notions of masculinity and femininity.
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In reference to masculinity, what does R.O.S.P.A.C stand for?
Rational, Objective, Strong, Protector, Aggressive, Competative
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In reference to femininity, what does E.S.W.P.P.C stand for?
Emotional, Subjective, Weak, Protected, Passive, Cooperative
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By which time and place did these roles of masculinity and femininity start to become entrenched?
17th Century Europe
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Why, specifically, was genderisation occuring in 17th century Europe?
As a direct response to the early form of capitalism in that period
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As a result of the early capitalism and industrialisation, what role was promote for men?
The role of 'Breadwinner'
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As a result of the early capitalism and industrialisation, what role was promote for women?
The role of 'Housewife'
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As such, what does this disparity between gender and gender binaries represent?
A key axis of power in society - thus, produces distinctions whereby notions of masculinity are privileged over femininity, and represents a devalorization of femininity, as thus females/women, over males.
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What is my 1st argument concerning how gender disparity is influenced in globalisation?
Gendered production and the its respective outlets
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What globalisation process has a major impact on gendered production?
Global restructuring and division of labour
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What is global restructuring?
The practice of re-oranising and organisation, institution or economic model to make them more profitable, often by making them smaller and divivsion of labour
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Why is division of labour gendered?
Because gender expectations and stereotypes are used as the defining method for deeming the most 'approrpiate' work for the respective genders
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How does gender stereotyping influence the type of work women get?
In being deemed as 'Obedient', 'naturally' suited to domestic tasks, women often find themselves at the forefront of low-paid, informal and demanding jobs
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What is the example I shall use to highlight how the labour force is gendered thanks to global restructuring?
Export Processing Zones (EPZ)
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What is an Export Processing Zone?
designated areas of financial incentives or regulatory relief from national laws designed to attract foreign investment
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The number of EPZs grew from .... in 1997 to 3,500 in ....
The number of EPZs grew from 845 in 1997 to 3,500 in 2006
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In between 1997 and 2006, the number of total employees in EPZs grew from 22.5 million to .....?
66 million
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On average, how much of an EPZs workforce is female?
80%
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Why is female labour favoured in EPZs?
Belief that women possess 'nimble fingers', 'naturally' good at sewing + thought of as 'Complient' and 'Docile'
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In highlighting how this practice of taking advanatge of cultural norms dates back decades, how did US athlectic shoe manufacurers do this in the 1980's?
Subcontracted work to male entrapanours in Korea and Taiwan, whom exploited the political and cultural climate that women should seek to work hard for low wages to serve their country, husband and father
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Outside of Export Processing Zones, in which other sectors is the labour force gendered?
Politics and Finance
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Regarding the political field, how many female heads of state are there around the world?
19
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Despite increasing since the 1990s, what percentage of the worldwide parliamentry seats do women account for?
22.1%
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Regarding gendered finance, Who is Sylvia Walby and what has she contributed to gendered finance?
Sylvia Walby – the UNESCO Chair in Gender Research – writes in her work ‘Gender and the Financial Crisis’ the manner to which the global financial architecture is one disproportionately structured and gendered against women
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What is Sylvia's first point rearding gendered finance?
Democratic deficit -women are disproportionality under-represented within the financial institutions, a result which categorically goes against the principle of Joseph Stiglitz whom noted everyone affected are entitled to its governence
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What percentage of Fortune 1000 CEO positions are taken by women?
5%
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What is Sylvia's second point regarding gendered finance? (links to her first)
The ethical argument - argues that lack of inclusion also results in women’s different interpretation of priorities, practices and understanding of risk is excluded from financial decision making.
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What is the 'Glass ceiling' effect?
Refers to a situation whereby senior positions and pay packets are predominatly occupied by men
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What factors influence the 'Glass ceiling' effect?
Old Boys networks, Male workplace culture, lack of childcare, welfare provisions...
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What is my second argument showing gendered globalisation?
Gendered consumption and distribution of globalisations effects?
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Why is consumption and distribution of globalisations effects gendered?
Because women are disproportionatly impacted by the trends of globalisation, and particularly neo-liberal economics
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How did The Economist of 2006 refer to womens role within the global economy?
'…most powerful engine of global growth’
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As a global average, what percentage of earnings are womens compared to a man?
77%
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When was the 'Feminisation of Poverty' popularised and what does it reflect?
Popularised in the US in later 1970s and reflects the understanding that a gendered division of labour ensures that crises are absorbed largely by poor working class women
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How was the 'Feminsation of Poverty' first empirically noticed
When considering the link between female-headed households and the incidence of poverty amongst single mothers - although there may be variation
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What were they name of the authors who conducted research reagrding the impact of Washinton-Consensus policies on women?
Marchand and Runyan (2000)
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How were women in the global south disproportionatly affected by SAPs?
Women had to take up roles of the state/give up income to these areas + often didnt eat so their children could + nursing family & loss of family planning + lost their land to export economy
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What was the success of SAPs dependant on in respect to women?
Dependant on the unpaid work of women's labour to take up these roles left behind
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Of the approximately 775 million minimally literate people worldwide, what % are women?
Over 65%
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Of the 213 million pregnancies every year, how many are unplanned?
85 million
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Between 1990 and 2013, how many women die per day from pregnancy related deaths?
Roughly 800
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How did austerity and structural adjustment affect women in the UK
Austerity policies hit service/public sector the most, a sector largely made up of women workers (2/3rd) + Often tend to use the services most e.g. Children centres & health services
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What is 'Double burden'?
The understanding that, on top of paid work, women are often responsible for household labour too - yet we are accustmed to think that they are "not working" during this time
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What is the 'Globalisation of reproductive work' and what does it mean?
Highlights how gendered approachs and binaries are more aggressivly reproduced in areas such in private areas of social life - e.g. sex-work, where women are essentially in humanley treated as tradable property and based on inplicit/explicit violence
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Who coined the term 'Globalisation of reproductive work'?
V.S Peterson
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What is Gender Mainstreaming and when was it established as a global strategy?
= Prescribes the review and revision of policy processes, with an eye toward eleminating gender-based disparities in policy formulation and implimentation
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When can the progressive evolution of gender policy be traced?
Mexico City 1975 - resulted in the launch of the UN decade for women (1976-85)
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What was one of the biggest conferences to date in gender mainstreaming?
1995 Beijing Platform for Action
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How many people attended the 1995 Beijing Platform for Action?
25,000 people - up from 5,000 in Mexico City
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What has the 1995 Beijing Platform influenced?
Ratified by all member states = Release of data from states regarding gender inequality + development of Gender Development Index (GDI)
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Influenced by the 1995 Beijing conference, what was the 1996 International Labour Organisation and what did it achieve?
A convention that set international standards for the type of low-paid, domestic work previosuly highlighted
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Despite UN action, who and what can much of the action made to diminish this inequality be attributed to?
Women themselves working within non-governmental organisations
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What is D.A.W.N and who was it set up by?
D.A.W.N = Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era - set up by Southern woman
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As an example of female emancipation projects, what is the Grameen Bank and when was it founded?
Founded in 1976, A bank which leads on investment to largely to a female clientele with small business loans
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Why are loans directed toward woman important?
Seen as a method of empowerment that gives women access to resources, economic security and higher status
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How many of Grameen borrowers rise out of poverty per year?
5%
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In Bangaladesh, how many borrowers did the bank support?
8.4 million people in over 80,000 villages - over 96% over them women
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is 'sex'?

Back

The biological distinction between male and female.

Card 3

Front

What is the central point between 'Gender' and 'Sex'?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

To underscore this point of difference between gender and sex, what has been the primary assessment that has been given to women across societies?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

To underscore this point of difference between gender and sex, what has been the primary assessment that has been given to men across societies?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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