GCSE AQA Geography

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What are the layers of the Earth, and what is each one made up of?
The layers are: the inner core, made up of nickel and iron. The outer core, also made up of nickel and iron. The mantle, made up of dense silicate rock, and the crust, made of less dense silicate rock.
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Tectonic plates
These are what the crust is split up into. They 'float' on the surface of the mantle and are moved by the convection currents which occur there.
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Destructive plate margin
A destructive plate boundary is when two plates, one oceanic and one continental, are moving towards each other. The denser oceanic plate then sinks below the continental plate. The features here are: composite volcanoes and ocean trenches.
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Constructive plate margin
A constructive plate boundary is when the plates are moving apart. This forces a shield volcano and new land to form.
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Conservative plate margin
This is when the plates are moving side by side, in either the same or opposite directions. Friction between these plates can cause catastrophic earthquakes.
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Fold mountains
These are formed when sediment between plates at a collision plate boundary turns solid, and is then pushed upwards by the movement of the plates.
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Ocean trenches
These are formed in the subduction zone of a destructive margin.
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Uses of fold mountains
Terraced/stepped farming, HEP, and tourism (e.g. skiing).
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Challenges of fold mountain environments
Relief (little/no flat land and steep slopes), climate (temperature drop one degree per one hundred metres), infertile soil and travel between valleys.
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Shield volcanoes
Found on constructive boundaries. Characteristics: regular and frequent eruptions, not explosive, runny lava, gentle slopes, wide base and made of lava only. Example: Surtsey Island, Iceland.
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Composite volcano
Found on destructive boundaries. Characteristics: subsidiary cones, made of lava and ash, irregular, violent eruptions and tall, steep sides. Example: Mt. Etna, Italy
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Supervolcanoes
These are 1000 times larger than a usual volcano. When it erupts, global cooling occurs, the magma chamber collapses and a caldera is formed. Example: Yellow Stone, US.
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Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat, 1995
This occurred in the Caribbean,, on a destructive plate boundary when magma was forced up through weak points in the volcano.
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Primary effects and responses: Soufriere Hills volcano
Effects: 20 deaths, 66% of farmland and homes destroyed, and 5000 people evacuated. Responses: evacuation, emergency help to provide temporary shelter.
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Secondary effects and responses: Soufriere Hills volcano
Effects: re-building costs and disrupted tourist industry. Responses: UK aid to re-build infrastructure, volcano observatory built and attempt to re-attract tourists.
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Predicting eruptions
Tiltmetres: checks for bulges. A bulge could indicate a build up of magma. Satellites: monitor heat changes. If the heat increases, it could indicate the presence of magma.
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Earthquake features
Focus: the point at which the disturbance occurs. Epicentre: the point on the ground directly above the focus. Shockwaves: radiate out in all directions from the focus.
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Richter scale
A scale used by seismographs to measure the strength of an earthquake with values plotted on a logarithmic scale 1-10.
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Mercallie scale
This indicates the earthquakes impact on the people, with I being little/no damage and XII being total destruction.
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Kobe, Japan, 1995
On the 17th January 1995, a 7.4 earthquake hit MEDC Japan. 35,000 people were injured or dead and infrastructure was destroyed. Later on, building were destroyed by fire and 316,000 were deemed homeless.
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Responses: Kobe, Japan, 1995
Immediate: people were evacuated, and rescue teams searched for 10 days. Long-term: jobs were created for the re-construction work and many people were permanently re-located.
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Kashmir, Pakistan, 2005
On 8th October 2005, a 7.6 magnitude earthquake hit Kashmir (LEDC). Buildings collapsed, 79,000 people died and landslides occurred. Later on, broken sewage pipes caused disease outbreaks (such as cholera) and people died of hypothermia.
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Responses: Kashmir, Pakistan, 2005
Primary: army and emergency services set up search parties, temporary shelters were provided and aid workers arrived from abroad. Secondary: Building were re-built and regulations improved.
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Boxing Day Tsunami, 2004
One of the most destructive natiral disasters ever, over 220,000 people died, 2,000,000 displaced, over 500,000 homes destroyed, infrastructure mostly destroyed and massive economic damage. Countries hit include Sri Lanka and India.
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Responses: Boxing Day Tsunami, 2004
Mass graves to prevent disease from spreading, international appeals raised over US$14 billion, and the disasters emergency committee gave £40 billion. The early warning system was put in place in 2006.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

These are what the crust is split up into. They 'float' on the surface of the mantle and are moved by the convection currents which occur there.

Back

Tectonic plates

Card 3

Front

A destructive plate boundary is when two plates, one oceanic and one continental, are moving towards each other. The denser oceanic plate then sinks below the continental plate. The features here are: composite volcanoes and ocean trenches.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A constructive plate boundary is when the plates are moving apart. This forces a shield volcano and new land to form.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

This is when the plates are moving side by side, in either the same or opposite directions. Friction between these plates can cause catastrophic earthquakes.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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