F215 Glossary

  • Created by: Kate RJ
  • Created on: 19-04-13 08:45
Gene
A length of DNA that codes for one (or more) polypeptides
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Polypeptide
A polymer consisting of a chain of amino acid residues joined by peptide bonds
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Genome
The entire DNA sequence of that organism. The human genome consists of about 3 billion nucleotides base pairs.
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Protein
A large polypeptide- usually 100 or more amino acids. Some proteins consist of more than one polypeptide chain.
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Transcription
The creation of a single-stranded mRNA copy of the DNA coding strand.
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Translation
The assembly of polypeptides (proteins) at ribosomes
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Mutation
A change in the amount of, or arrangement of, the genetic material in a cell.
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Chromosome mutations
Changes to parts of or whole chromosomes
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DNA mutations
Changes to genes due to changes in nucleotide base pairs
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Allele
An alternative version of a gene. It's still at the same locus on the chromosome and codes for the same polypeptide but the alteration to the DNA base sequence may alter the protein's structure.
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Operon
A length of DNA, made up of structural genes and control sites. The structural genes code for proteins, such as enzymes. The control sites are the operator region and a promoter region.
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The operator and promoter
Both genes as they are lengths of DNA. However, the don't code for polypeptides.
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A repressor protein
Can bind to the operator region, and RNA polymerase binds to the promoter region to transcribe the structural genes.
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Homeobox genes
Control the development of the body plan of an organism, including the polarity (head and tail ends) and positioning of the organs.
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Phagocytosis
The endocytosis of large solid molecules into a cell.
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Meiosis
A reduction division. The resulting daughter cells have half the original number of chromosomes. They are haploid and can be used for sexual reproduction.
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Locus
The position of a gene on a chromosome
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Crossing over
When lengths of DNA are swapped from one chromatid to another.
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Maternal chromosome
The set of chromosome in an individuals cells that were contributed by the egg.
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Paternal chromsome
The set of chromosomes in an individual's cells that were contributed by the sperm
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Chromosome mutation
Random change to the structure of a chromosome
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Inversion
A section of chromosome turns through 180 degrees
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Deletion
A part is lost
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Translocation
A piece of one chromosome becomes attached to another
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Non-disjunction
Homologous chromosomes fail to seperate fully
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Codominant
When both alleles contribute to the phenotype.
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Epistasis
The interaction of different gene loci so that one gene locus masks or suppresses the expression of another gene locus.
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Xsquared test
A statistical test to find out if the difference between observed categorical date (data in categories) and expected data is small enough to be due to chance.
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Population
A group of individuals of the same species that can interbreed. Populations are dynamic- they can expand or contract due to changes in birth or death rates or migration.
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Gene pool
The set of genetic information carried by a population
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Selection pressure
An environmental factor that confers greater chances of survival to reproductive age on some members of the population
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The biological species concept
A group of similar organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring
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Phylogenetic species concept
A group of organisms that have similar morphology (shape), physiology (biochemistry), embryology (stages of development) and behaviour, and occupy the same ecological 'niche'
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A monophyletic group
One that includes an ancestral organism that can grow into new individual organisms. These offspring contain the same genetic information as the parent and so are clones of the parent.
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Tissue culture
Refers to the serperation of cells of any tissue type and their growth in or on a nutrient medium. In plants, the undifferentiated callus tissue is grown in nutrient medium containing plant hormones that stimulate development of the complete plant.
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A cloned animal
One that has been produced using the same genetic information as another animal. Such an animal has the same genotype as the donor organism.
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Biotechnology
technology based on biology and involves the exploitation of living organisms or biological processes, to improve agriculture, animal husbandry, food science, medicine and industry.
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Culture
A growth of microorganisms. This may be a single species (which would be called a pure culture). Microorganisms can be cultured in a liquid such as nutrient broth, or on a solid surface such as nutrient agar gel.
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Immobilisation of enzymes
Any technique where enzyme molecules are held, seperated from the reaction mixture. substrate molecules can bind to the enzymes molecules and the products formed go back into the reaction mixture leaving the enzymes molecules in place.
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Genomics
The study of the whole set of genetic information in the form of DNA base sequences that occur in the cells of organisms of a particular species. The sequenced genomes of organisms are placed on public access database.
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Electropheresis
Seperation of the different lengths of DNA fragments, in a mixture, is achieved because, as the negatively charged fragments move towards the positive electrode, shorter fragments pass through the gel more easily and so move further in a fixed time.
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Primers
Short, single-stranded sequences of DNA, around 10-20 bases in length.
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Sticky-end
Formed when DNA is cut using a restriction enzyme. It's a short run of unpaired, exposed bases. Seen at the end of the cut section.
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Transgenic
Any organism when in contains DNA that has been added to its cells as a result of genetic engineering.
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Replica plating
The process of growing bacteria on an agar plate, then transferring a replica of that growth to another plates, usually containing different growth promotes or inhibits.
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Golden Rice
Biofortified food because it contains higher than normal concentrations of a particular nutrient, in this case beta-carotene
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GMO
An organism that has undergone genetic engineering is a GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISM
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Transgenic organism
Received an allele of a gene from another organism, often at a different species.
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Liposomes
Small spheres of lipid bilayer containing a functioning allele
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Xenotransplantation
Transplantation of cell tissues or organs between animals of different species
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Allotransplantation
The transplantation between animals of the same species
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Habitat
The place where an organism lives
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Population
All of the organisms of one species that live in the same place at the same time, and that can breed together
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Community
All the populations of different species that live in the same place at the same time and can interact with each other
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Trophic level
The level at which an organism feeds in a food chain
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Productivity
The rate at which energy passes through each trophic level in a food chain
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Megajoule
One million joules
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Primary productivity
The total amount of energy fixed by photosynthesis
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Net primary productivity
The rate at which carbohydrate accumulats in the tissue of plants of an ecosystem and is measured in dry organic mass, such as kg
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Succession
A directional change in a community of organism over time
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carrying capacity
The maximum population size that can be maintained over a period of time in a particular habitat
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Limiting factor
The one whose magnitute limits the rate of the process
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Competition
Happens when resources (e.g.food/water) are not present in adequate amounts to satisfry the needs of all the individuals who depend on those resources
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Coppicing
Cutting a tree trunk close to the ground to encourage new growth
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Conservation
The maintenance of biodiversity, including diversity between species, genetic diversity within species and maintenance of a variety of habitats
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tropism
A directional growth response in which the direction of the response is determined by the direction of the external stimulus
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Apical dominance
The growing apical bud at the tip of the shoot inhibits growth of lateral buds further down the shoot.
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Cerebrum
The largest and most recognisable part of the brain. it's responsible for the elements of the nervous system that are associated with being human e.g. imagination
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Cerebellum
Controls the coordination of movement and posture
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Hypothalamus
Controls the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine glands
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Medulla oblongata
Controls the action of smooth muscles in the gut wall and controls breathing movements and heart rate
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The central nervous system
the brain and spinal cord
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Peripheral nervous system
The sensory and motory neurones that are outsaide the central nervous system- connectint the receptors and effectors to the CNS
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Card 2

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Polypeptide

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A polymer consisting of a chain of amino acid residues joined by peptide bonds

Card 3

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Genome

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Card 4

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Protein

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Card 5

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Transcription

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