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Biology Unit 4 Keywords


Ecology The study of the inter-relationships between organisms and their
Abiotic Factors Non-living components of the environment.
Biotic Factors Living components of the environment.
Biosphere Life-supporting layer of land, air and water that surrounds the Earth.
Ecosystem A self-contained functional unit made up of…

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Photophosphorylation The production of ATP using the energy of sunlight. Light energy is
used to create a high-energy electron donor and a lower-energy
electron acceptor. Electrons then move spontaneously from donor to
acceptor through an electron transport chain.
Oxidative phosphorylation A metabolic pathway that uses energy released by the oxidation…

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Krebs Cycle Acetylcoenzyme A comes into a cycle of oxidation-reduction reactions
that yield some ATP and a large number of electrons.
Involves substrate-level phosphorylation.
Electron transport chain The use of the electrons produced in the Krebs cycle to synthesise ATP
with water produced as a by-product.
Energy and Ecosystems


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Nutrient Cycles

Base sequence of all
nutrient cycles

Greenhouse effect Natural process that occurs that keeps the average global
temperature around 17C. It is a result of the heat and light of the solar
radiation that reaches our planet and isn't reflected back into space.
Ammonification Saprobiotic organisms feed on…

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Allele Different forms of a gene.
Homologous A pair of chromosomes that have the same gene loci and therefore
chromosomes determine the same features.
Homozygous Two of the same alleles present.
Heterozygous One of each allele present.
Dominant The allele that is expressed even when present with the recessive


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