Biological Glossary - molecules


Biological Glossary - Molecules

Key Word



One small molecule that can combine with other monomers to make a polymer


A large molecule made up of lots of lots of monomers, it is a chain

Condensation Reaction

Chemical process which combines two molecules into a more complex removal with the removal of water


A sugar that can’t be made to give a simpler sugar, they forms chains to create a polysaccharide

Alpha Glucose

Glucose which has OH on the bottom of the 1st Carbon

Beta Glucose

Glucose which has OH on the top of the 1st Carbon

1-4 Glycosidic bond

A bond between 2 Glucose molecules, between the 1st Carbon and the 4th Carbon, formed by condensation reaction

1-6 Glycosidic bond

A bond between 2 Carbons between the 1st Carbon and the 6th Carbon formed by condensation reaction

Reducing sugars

Sugars that can act as a reducing agent because it has free groups,all monosaccharides are reducing sugars

Non-reducing sugars

A sugar that can’t act as a reducing agent

Benedict’s solution

A solution that changes colour when sugar is detected


A disaccharide is two monosaccharides connected together with a glycosidic bond


Sucrose is a disaccharide made from fructose and glucose with a glycosidic bond


Galactose is a monosaccharide, it is like glucose but has OH above in the 2nd Carbon


Maltose is a disaccharide formed from two alpha glucose molecules


A polysaccharide is a polymer made from lots and lots of monosaccharides in a chain, they are made with condensation reactions and polymerisation


Starch is a polysaccharide made from Amylopectin and Amylose


Amylose is a polypeptide made from glucose which 1-4 glycosidically bonded


Amylopectin is made from glucose with 1-4 glycosidic bonds, however it also has 1-6 glycosidic bonds, meaning that it is branched


Cellulose is a polysaccharide made from beta glucose 1-4 bonds, every other glucose is twisted so that the cellulose is straight


A very small fibril made from strands of cellulose, held together by hydrogen bonds

Hydrogen bond

The bond between slight positive and negative charges, it makes a weak force of attraction


A molecule made up of a glycerol molecule and 3 fatty acids

Ester Bond

The bond between the glycerol molecule and the fatty acid, it is called an Ester bond because of the distinctive shape


A substance is saturated when all bonds are single, meaning that there are no double or triple bonds. All of the bonds are used up


Unsaturated is when a substance includes bonds that are not single, for example


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