Extreme Weather Revision Cards

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Alisha
  • Created on: 29-06-14 19:59
Extreme Weather
Weather which can be described as severe, unexpected or at record levels
1 of 69
Immediate disastrous weather event
Hurricane or tornado
2 of 69
Consequential/subsequent hazard
Flooding
3 of 69
Longer term trend
drought
4 of 69
Tropical Storm
Large, violent revolving storms associated with hurricane force winds and torrential rain
5 of 69
Temperate Storms
Large, mobile, low pressure system that bring heavy rain and gale force winds
6 of 69
Tornadoes
Violently rotating, funnel shaped columns of air in contact with the ground
7 of 69
River Floods
Rivers overflowing their banks because of excessive rainfall or rapid snowmelt
8 of 69
Blizzards
Heavy snowfall driven by strong winds
9 of 69
Severe winter weather
prolonged spells of abnormally low temperature and/or snow cover
10 of 69
Heat waves
prolonged spells of abnormally high temperatures (e.g. above 30 degrees Celsius)
11 of 69
Wildfires
Severe forest and shrub fires devastating extensive areas
12 of 69
Drought
Prolonged spells of abnormally low rainfall
13 of 69
Air Mass (continental, maritime, tropical and polar)
Large body of air with similar temperature and moisture properties throughout. e.g. over land (dry), over water (wet), cold and warm
14 of 69
Air pressure
Force of air pressing down on Earth's surface
15 of 69
Depression
Region of low atmospheric pressure brings wind and precipitation
16 of 69
Anticyclone
Region of high atmospheric pressure brings dry, hot weather or cold, frost and mist
17 of 69
Isobars
Lines which join up areas of same pressure on a map
18 of 69
Weather Front
Occur where two different air masses meet
19 of 69
Warm Front
Formed when warm air rises over a mass of cold air. Produces steady rainfall.
20 of 69
Cold Front
Transition zone where cold air is replaced by warm air, cold air follows warm air and gradually moves underneath producing heavy rainfall
21 of 69
Occluded Front
Point where cold/warm front takes over warm/cold front, produces changeable weather conditions.
22 of 69
Cold Occlusion
Cold front moves under warm front
23 of 69
Warm Occlusion
Cold front moves over warm front
24 of 69
Synoptic Charts
Weather map which provides information of distribution, ,ovement and patterns of air pressure, rainfall, wind and temperature, conveyed using symbols and explained using a legend.
25 of 69
Storm Hydrograph
Shows changes in rainfall and river discharge overtime
26 of 69
Convectional rainfall
Occurs when: surface of the Earth is heated, warm surface heats the air above it causing it to rise. As the air rises it begins to cool and condense and forms clouds. Tends to produce cumulonimbus clouds, so heavy rain and thunder and lightening
27 of 69
Frontal Rainfall
Occurs when: two air masses meet (warm and cold), warm air is forced over denser cold air. warm air cools and condenses and rain is formed. produces a variety of clouds and moderate to heavy rainfall
28 of 69
Relief Rainfall
Occurs when: prevailing winds pick up moisture from the sea, moist air reaches coast and is forced to rise by mountains/hills. This forces air to cool and form clouds, moisture is dropped as rain
29 of 69
Rain Shadow
Area behind mountains gets little rain as it drops over mountains
30 of 69
Jet Stream
Very strong winds which move weather systems around the globe
31 of 69
El Nino
Change in circulation of currents in the Pacific Ocean. Circulation is reversed causing droughts in Australia and floods in South America.
32 of 69
La Nina
Change in circulation of currents in the Pacific Ocean. Circulation is like normal but intensified. Australia gets flooding and South America gets drought.
33 of 69
Magnitude
Size of event
34 of 69
Frequency
How often an event of certain magnitude occurs
35 of 69
Risk Equation
Hazard x Vulnerability/ capacity to cope
36 of 69
Modifying event
Attempting to control environment and causes of event
37 of 69
Modify Vulnerability
Combination of technology to monitor and predict extreme weather events and strategies to improve community preparedness
38 of 69
Modify Loss
Insurance in richer countries and long term air in poorer countries
39 of 69
Seeding
Attempt to stop hurricane by super cooling water in outer rain bands to freeze causing inner eyewall to collapse, thus reducing winds, silver iodine used.
40 of 69
Flood abatement methods
Measures which focus on the processes and stores within the drainage basin and attempt to slow the movement through the system (lengthen lag time). Include: afforestation, farmer education...
41 of 69
Channelization
Channel shape is changed and concreted making water move more quickly through urban areas
42 of 69
Hard engineering
Tend to be expensive, short term options which have a high impact on landscape or environment and be unsustainable e.g. sea wall, flood barrier...
43 of 69
Soft engineering
Options tend to be less expensive, more long term and sustainable with less impact on the environment e.g. management and retreat
44 of 69
Forecasting
Recording data and using computer models to predict weather
45 of 69
Satellites
Object placed in orbit in order to collect information, allows consistent, long term observation to track hurricanes and tornadoes
46 of 69
UAVs
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles - allow cheap, flexible acquisition of aerial images and allows monitoring of events and land cover change
47 of 69
Remote sensing
Viewing something via a platform e.g. satellite or UAV
48 of 69
GIS
Software which allows mapping and asking questions about certain situations
49 of 69
Stevenson Screen
Standard shelter from rain, snow and high winds as well as leaves and animals
50 of 69
Barometer
Measures air pressure
51 of 69
Anemometer
Measures wind speed and direction
52 of 69
Hygrometer
Measures humidity
53 of 69
Oktas
Unit used to express the extent of cloud, equal to one eighth of the sky
54 of 69
Rose Diagrams
(Wind) shows distribution of wind direction and speed at a location over a period of time
55 of 69
Microclimate
The climate of a very small or restricted area, especially when this differs from surrounding area
56 of 69
Wetted Width
Width of water surface measured perpendicular to the direction of flow at a specific discharge
57 of 69
Wetted depth
The average depth of a stream channel from mean high water depth to mean high water depth
58 of 69
Wetter perimeter
The portion of the perimeter of a stream channel cross section which is in contact with water
59 of 69
Bankfull width
The width of a river or stream channel between the highest banks on either side of a stream
60 of 69
Bankfull depth
Distance from bankfull height to riverbed
61 of 69
Bankfull wetter perimeter
Distance along streambed and banks under bankful conditions (when river completely fills channel)
62 of 69
Velocity
The speed of something in a given direction
63 of 69
Cross-sectional area
channel width x channel depth
64 of 69
Discharge
Amount of water flowing through river bed = CSA x velocity
65 of 69
Hydraulic Radius
Measure of efficiency of river. = Bankfull CSA/ wetter perimeter
66 of 69
Goad Maps
Map showing land use of buildings
67 of 69
Stratified sample
Population is divided into subpopulations (strata) and random sample taken from each stratum in proportion to its size compared to the population
68 of 69
Long profile
Way of displaying the channel slope of a river
69 of 69

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Hurricane or tornado

Back

Immediate disastrous weather event

Card 3

Front

Flooding

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

drought

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Large, violent revolving storms associated with hurricane force winds and torrential rain

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Weather systems resources »