Life Expectancy UK
Average UK Life expectancy:
- Males- 77.9 years.
- Females- 82 years.
Lowest Life Expectancy in UK is in Glasglow:-
- 71 years- males.
- 78 years- females.
Highest life Expectancy in UK is in Chelsea & Kingston London:-
- 85 years- males.
- 87 years- females.
Bromsgrove & Redditch Local Areas within UK Health
- Redditch is within the national average unlike Bromsgrove which is above due to a large proportion of elderly people.
- Bromsgrove is above the national average for maligment melanoma unlike Redditch which is below because in Bromsgrove more people go abroad.
- Redditch is well bellow national average for (5A*-C)GCSE results whereas Bromsgrove are above.
- Both are within the national average for deprivation, child tooth decay and both have above physically fit children.
- Redditch has above average teen pregnancy rates unlike Bromsgrove which is below national average
Solving Health Problems- Worcester
- Building of St. Martins Gate surgery in a deprived area of Worcs. Which offers late opening hours, family planning, child health and immunisation.
- School sports partnerships- Reducing childhood obesity.
- Home- school partnerships- Improve GCSE results.
- Confidential Councillors- Help drop high self harm rates.
- Increased expenditure into mental health issues ans healthy eating programmes within schools.
Northern City Health Profile- Liverpool
- Life Expectancy: Males: 74.9yrs Females: 79.2yrs
- Early Deaths From: Cancer, strokes & smoking (all above national average)
- Unhealthy diets are linked to low income so more cheap, fast food consumed.
- Low cases of: TB (below national average.)
- GCSE Results: Below national average 53% 5A*-C GCSEs
- Age profile: Low amounts of 60+years. Large amounts of 24-49years. High amounts of under 18s.
- 12.8% Unemployment (HIGH) UK average= 8.3%.
Midlands City Health Profile- Worcester
- Life Expectancy: Males:77.1years Females: 82years (within national average.)
- Early Deaths From: Cancer, heart disease and strokes.
- Low Cases Of: Smoking adults (5% below national average.)
- GCSE Results: Within national average (5A*-C GCSEs.)
- Higher Male unemployment than female M- 6.4% F- 2.8%
Southern City Health Profile- Chelmsford
- Life Expectancy- Males:80.3years. Females: 84.3years.
- Below Average: Obesity in children.
- Unemployment: 1.6% unemployment = LOW.
- Low pollution levels- low lung cancer, etc...
- GCSE Results: Above national average (5A*-C GCSEs.)
- High levels of people 40+years and low levels of under 24yrs.
CHD Management within the UK
CHD: Non-communicable disease of affluence (Coronary Heart Disease)
Causes:- Fat builds up in artery walls causing an eventual blocked artery. Fat is from cholesterol and LDLs. Also smoking, high blood pressure, obesity & irregular exercise
Effects:- High risk of heart attack, strokes, difficulty exercising & breathlessness.
NHS Management:- Medication, surgery & recovery , exercise programme, ect...
Other Management:- 'Diet clubs' e.g. slimmers world, active children programmes, pictures on cigarette boxes, "traffic light" system on food packaging, alcohol guidelines on bottles, cholesterol lowering food e.g. flora or benacol.
CHD in Russia
Diet:- High Carbohydrate diets, large amounts of alcohol (15l pure alcohol per yr)
Cars:- It has 2nd highest car ownership in Europe meaning less exercise.
Smoking:- 39% of all Russian people smoke.
Stress:- Highest suicide rates in the world indicate high stress levels.
Healthcare:- In 1989- 20% of hospitals had no hot water, and 3% had no cold water so there was poor health care and will be better now but sitll poorer than some Western countries.
Somalia- Food Shortages (Famine/ Drought)
Causes, Political, environmental & Economic.
- Political- No government since 1991, since then the country has been in civil war. There are also issues with the radicalist group Al-Shabaab and Pirates.
- Economic- Rapidly deteriorated since 1991. 43% of the population now live on less than $1.00 per day.
- Environmental- Drought in area, 4million effected. Lack long term strategies to help land & pirates stop imports & fishing.
- Impacts- Crop failure, lack of opportunities mean people turn to radicalism and piracy. Also people seek asylum in other countries impact their resources.
- Solution- 2011 London Summit- International Aid has been increased by UK & international donors which gave them an extra $8.6 million USD in 2011.
Food Shortages Comparison to Somalia
- 75% of Bangladesh live within 1 1/2m of sea level.
- Decline in food= Government subsidises.
- 70% of income goes on food.
- more extreme various weather e.g. cyclones.
- decrease in crop yield = increase in price of food.
- 70 million people live on less than $1USD per day.
Central Valley California
- Because it's a 1st world country they have the money and means to develop irrigation & fertilisation so crops can grow which they don't have in LEDC's.
- This shows it's more than just environmental reasons that cause famine.
HIV/AIDs in Africa
Why Has it Spread?
Mobile male workforce, lack of education & contraception, sex is a taboo subject.
Why do People Die from it?
Lack of ARV drug, reluctancy to be tested. Poverty means poor living conditions so you're more likely to contract and die from opportunistic disease.
Strikes productive adults, treatments costs a lot particularly in countries with small budgets. Any one can get it- not just uneducated people.
HIV/AIDs in Zimbabwe
- Shown a decline in HIV/AID since 1990s.
- Change in social attitudes e.g. reduction in casual sex and increase in condom use.
- Increase in education into prevention of HIV/AIDs.
Approaches to Health Care- Cuba (NIC)
- Provides an excellent healthcare service for its people.
- Infant mortality rate is less than USA (5.6.)
- Life expectancy is same as UK (77years.)
- There's one doctor per 159years.
- There's no private healthcare in Cuba.
- Set up by money from the Soviet Union.
- Highest doctor: patient rate in world after Italy.
- 2% of Cuba's tourism comes from people travelling there for surgery.
- Cuba have an embargo on drug imports from USA, so some medicines may be bought through the black market.
Approaches to Health Care- UK NHS (MEDC)
- Founded in postwar Britain- 1948 to provide free health care.
- Private health care system still runs parallel to it.
- Paid for by UK tax payer.
- In England 2008-09 cost England £94 bn.
- NHS is the worlds 5th largest employer (employs 1.7million staff.)
- All those with EHIC cards from Europe can get free healthcare in UK.
- Rich and poor are treated alike.
- Split into primary care trusts who distribute the money.
- Under pressure due to ageing population.
Approaches to Health Care- South Africa (LEDC)
- Public and private health care systems run parallel.
- Wealthiest 20% use private health care system.
- Since WW2- funding has increased. (from 48% to 80%.)
- 8.7% of GDP is spent on healthcare.
- Private sector is growing quickly (least 4 years- 39 new hospitals opened)
- Standard of healthcare in S.Africa is said to be best in Africa.
- Specialists that work there tend to be trained in: USA, UK and other western countries.
Transnational Pharmaceutical Company- GSK 1
Valued at £77,362 million, Glaxosmithkline are one of the biggest pharmaceutical companies in the world. They employ 100,000people in 177countries world wide. They supple 1/4 of the worlds vaccines.
- GSK try to invest 20% of there profits into LEDCs.
- In each LEDC consumer of there product they try to invest £10,000.
- Projects include expanding nurse-run clinics in Rwanda and improving health infrastructure in Cambodia.
Transnational Pharmaceutical Company- GSK 2
Malaria:- Since 2008 GSK has been running trials of new malaria vaccines, it's scheduled to continue through 2014 and test more than 15,000 children.
HIV:- Collaborations with other countries to find and develop new drugs. £50million put into helping prevent mother to child transmission. Also they put £10million into funds for HIV/AIDs medicine for children fund.
TB:- Alliance with non-profit organisation for TB alliance. Research and development into medication that can help cure & prevent TB. Help make TB medication cheap & readily available.
Transnational Tobacco Company- BAT 1
British America Tobacco (BAT) have a 17% share of the tobacco market. In 2011 the company paid more than $30billion in taxes globally. They employ 56,265 people globally- they have a gross turnover of £46,123million in 2011.
Manufacturing:- Has factories all over the world (52 cigarette factories in 44 countries and 4 others making different products in 4 different countries.) 250,000 farmers.
Distribution:- Distributed globally with huge brands such as pal mall, Kent and lucky strike. Apply to laws on marketing tobacco in many different countries. On the FTSE 100, and one of there most successful companies.