English Language Theorists

  • Created by: Rachel
  • Created on: 22-05-13 16:22
Howard Giles
Women more likely to upward converge and eliminate regional featires.
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HP Grice
Women more like to speak in more detail and disgregard maxim of relevance.
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Pamela Fishman
Women introduce more topics in mixed sex conversations. Later study found men spoke twice as much in mix sex conversation.
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Zimmerman and West
Found men interrupted more than women.
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Robin Lakoff
Women are more polite, use more standard English, appologise more, use intensifiers, hedges.
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Dale Spender
Thinks language conveys male power, e.g hurricane, women and history.
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Jenny Cheshire
Boys used non standard and lower prestige English. Covert prestige to local dialect for males.
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Jenny Coates
Women interrupt in speech when talking.
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Who would weak expletives support?
Robin Lakoff and Jennifer Coates. 'Oh dear'. Males swear more.
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What does Robin Lakoff say about tag questions?
Adds uncertainty so speaker doesnt impose point of view strongly.
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What does Pamela Fishman say about tag questions?
It is to keep conversation going.
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What does Jennifer Coates say about tag questions?
Men used them to seek information.
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What does Robin Lakoff say about intensifiers and qualifiers?
They are too avoid strong statements or committing to an opinion. Uncertainty.
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What does Dale Spender say about intensifiers and qualifiers?
Uncertainty when used by women but certainty and authority when used by men.
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What does Robin Lakoff say about hedges?
Punctuate speech with uncertainty.
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What does Pamela Fishman say about hedges?
Women use 'you know' 5 times more than men ONLY for conversational purposes.
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What does Deberah Coates say about hedges?
Men hedge less.
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What does Robin Lakoff say about grammar?
Women more likely to comply to grammatical rules.
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What does Jenny Cheshire say about grammar?
Reading study- even at an early age females use more standard forms.
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What did Zimmerman and West say about interruptions?
Men interrupted women more than sex same conversations. Women interrupted women more than with men.
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What did Deborah Tannen say about interruptions?
Interruptions and overlaps can be supportive in women.
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What do Zimmerman and West say about silences?
Longer in mixed sex conversations. Women interrupted more so spoke less.
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What does Deborah Tannen say about imperatives?
Men use more. Used more to sons than daughters. Women used 'let's', cloaked imperative.
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What is andocentric?
Language has a bias towards men.
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Otto Jesperson.
Sexist. Said womens language was more emotional than grammatical.
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What is the deficit model?
Womens language is weak. Lakoff and Jesperson.
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What is the dominance model?
Language as a result of maintaining male dominance and females language is a result of subordination.
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What is the difference model?
Men may be dominant without meaning to be. Men and womens speech is different.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

HP Grice

Back

Women more like to speak in more detail and disgregard maxim of relevance.

Card 3

Front

Pamela Fishman

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Zimmerman and West

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Robin Lakoff

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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