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English Language ANSWER
Language and Gender: Spoken Interaction
Quiz on Theorists
1. What was the book by Robin Lakoff called?
2. What did Lakoff discover about women's language use? What features did it
Women use a range of specific language features (tags, hedges, fillers, rising intonation).
3. What did these features indicate about women?
To indicate a lack of assertiveness and authority.
4. Who were the theorists who discovered the concepts of dominance, power
and interruptions in their research?
Zimmerman & West
5. Who are more likely to interrupt with assumptions?
6. What was the percentage of interruptions in mixed conversations made by
7. What were women restricted of? What did men try to impose?
Dominance through applying constraints on conversational practice.
8. What key terms and concepts were the result of O'Barr and Atkins' research?
Gender & Status
9. How many hours of conversation did they record? Where was it recorded?
150 hours of courtroom conversation.
10. What did they find as a result of this recording? What did they conclude
That women's language was "neither characteristic of all women nor limited for only
women" They conclude that status was the more determining factor in speech style,
11. What did Fishman & Holmes research?
12. How many times did women use (the above) more than men?
2 1/2 times more.
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According to Fishman, what were they used to show?
Used not to show weakness but to facilitate discussion.
14. Complete the sentence: (Fishman) `Women are doing the ...'
Interactional shitwork of conversation.
15. What did Holmes say that (the above) were?
16. What did she distinguish them as?
Between checking tags (speaker-orientated = male) and facilitative tags (addressee
orientated = female)
17. Who wrote about socialisation and competitive & cooperative speech styles?
Here's a taster:
A form of high status given to non-standard forms.
30. According to Trudgill, what are men more likely to use? What do they attach
More likely to use more non-standard forms than women men attach covert prestige to
non-standard forms.…read more