Electrons, bonding and structure

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Define the term 'shell'
a group of atomic orbitals with the same principal quantum number (n.)
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What is an 'orbital'?
a region within an atom that can hold up to 2 electrons with opposite spins. Orbitals within the same sub-shell have the same energy.
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How many orbitals can the s sub-shell hold?
1
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How many orbitals can the p sub-shell hold?
3
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How many orbitals can the d sub-shell hold?
5
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How many orbitals can the f sub-shell hold?
7
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What are the shapes of s and p orbitals?
s- spherical shape. p- 3 x 'dumbbell' shapes at right angles to each other.
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How do you write electronic configurations?
energy level/shell is represented by a number, sub-shells are represented by their letter, number of electrons in each sub-shell is written after each letter.
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How do orbitals fill?
Singly before sharing
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What are the s,p,d blocks?
s block-group 1 and 2 metals+ He and H. p block-groups 3-0. d group- transition metals.
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What is the first ionisation energy?
The energy needed to remove one electrons from each atom in one mole of gaseous atoms to form one mole of gaseous 1+ ions.
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How must ionisation energy equation be written?
With (g) gas state symbol. e.g O (g) ---> O^+ (g) e^-
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What are 3 factors affecting ionisation energy?
Nuclear charge, atomic radius and electron shielding.
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How does nuclear charge affect the ionisation energy?
The more protons added to the nucleus, the higher the positive charge in the nucleus and the stronger the attraction for the electrons in the outer shell.
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How does atomic radius affect the ionisation energy?
Electrons closer to nucleus will be much more strongly attracted. The greater the atomic radius, the smaller the nuclear attraction of outer electrons.
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How does electron shielding affect the ionisation energy?
Inner shells of electrons repel outer-shell electrons. More inner shells= more shielding/repulsion, so there is smaller nuclear attraction of outer shells.
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What is successive ionisation energy?
the energy needed to remove one electron from each ion in one mole of gaseous 1+ ions to form one mole of gaseous 2+ ions.
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Explain why successive ionisation energies increase
Electrons are removed from an increasingly positive ion. There is a higher nuclear charge and the outer electrons are pulled closer to the nucleus, decreasing atomic radius. When a new shell is broken into, the shielding effect is lessened.
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What do features on successive ionisation energy graphs show?
number of points (electrons removed) before first jump is the number of electrons in the outer shell (group number.) The large jump shows the new shell being broken into.
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When are ions formed and define 'ionic bond.'
When electrons are transferred from metal atoms to non metal atoms. An ionic bond is an electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions.
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What is a giant ionic lattice?
A giant 3D structure of oppositely charged ions, held together by strong ionic bonds (electrostatic attraction.) Each ions is surrounded by oppositely charged ions, attracting each other.
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Why do ionic compounds have high melting points?
They are held together by strong electrostatic forces which require lots of energy to overcome.
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Why do ionic compounds only conduct electricity when they're molten?
Solid ionic: Ions are fixed in a lattice with strong ionic bonds. Molten: ions are free to move as lattice has broken down and they can conduct electricity.
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Why do ionic compounds dissolve in polar substances?
Part of the polar solvent has a slightly negative charge and the other part has a slightly positive charge. Therefore the cations attract to the slightly negative part and the anions attract to the slightly positive charge.
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What is a covalent bond?
a shared pair of electrons. (which attract to the two positively charged nuclei of the two atoms.)
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What are the elements which can expand their octet, and give an example.
P, As, S, Se, Te, Cl, Br, I, At (sulfur hexafluoride)
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What is dative covalent bonding?
where one of the atoms supplies both the shared electrons in the bond. (ex. NH4+ is where NH3 donates a lone pair of electrons to a proton.)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is an 'orbital'?

Back

a region within an atom that can hold up to 2 electrons with opposite spins. Orbitals within the same sub-shell have the same energy.

Card 3

Front

How many orbitals can the s sub-shell hold?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How many orbitals can the p sub-shell hold?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How many orbitals can the d sub-shell hold?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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