ES - CI3.1 Chemical Bonding

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  • Created by: Gemma
  • Created on: 16-10-12 18:38

Formation of Ions

  • Groups 1 and 2 metal elements can lose electrons to make cations
  • Non-metal elements (have more than 3 electrons) to form anions

Ionic Bonding

  • Metals + Non-metals = ions are formed
  • Electrons are transferred from the metal to the non-metal
  • Cations and anions formed are held together by electrostatic bond
  • Use electron dot-cross diagrams to represent:


  • Opposite charged ions attract = ionic bonding
  • Properties: high m.p, dissolve in water and conduct electricity when molten

Covalent Bonding

  • Contain only non-metal elements
  • Electrons are shared between atoms
  • Shared electrons count as part of the outer shell of both atoms
  • Held together by the +ve nucleus attracting the -ve electrons
  • Electrons that form bonds = bonding pairs
  • Electrons not involved = lone pairs

eg. dot and cross diagram


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