As chem ocr unit 1 module 2 bonding

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  • Electron, bonding and structure
    • shells and orbitals
      • ionisation energies
        • The first ionisation energy of an element is the energy required to remove one electron from each atom in one mole of gaseous atoms to form one mole of gaseous 1+ ions.
        • factors affecting it
          • Atomic Radius
          • Nuclear charge
          • Electron shielding
            • Electron shielding is the repulsion between electrons in different inner shells. shielding reduces the net attractive force from the positive nucleus on the outer-shell electrons.
      • atomic orbitals
        • An atomic orbital is a region within an atom that can hold up to two electrons, with opposite spins
        • Subshells
          • A subshell is a group of the same type of atomic orbitals within a shell.
      • A shell is a group of atomic orbitals with the same principal quantum number.
    • Chemical Bonding
      • Ionic bonding
        • An ionic bond is the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
        • A giant ionic lattice is a 3-D structure of oppositely charged ions, held together by strong ionic bonds.
      • Covalent bonding
        • A covalent bond is a bond formed by a shared pair of electrons
        • A lone pair is an outer-shell pair of electrons that is not involved in chemical bonding.
        • A dative covalent bond is a shared pair of electons which has been provided by one of the bonding atoms only.
      • Metallic bonding
        • Metallic bonding is the electrostatic attraction between posistive metal ions and delocalised electrons.
        • A giant metallic latttice is a 3-D structure of positive ions and delocalised electrons, bonded together by strong metallic bonds.
        • Delocalised electrons are shared between more than two atoms.
      • Hydrogen bonding
        • A hydrogen bond is a strong dipole-dipole attraction between an electron-deficient hydrogen atom on one molecule and a lone pair of electrons on a different molecule.
    • Shapes of molecules
    • Electronegativity and polarity
      • A permanent dipole is a small charge across a bond that results from a difference in the electronegativities of the bonded atoms.
      • A polar covalent bond has a permanent dipole.
      • Electronegativity is a measure of the attraction of a bonded atom for the pair of electrons in a covalent bond
      • A polar molecule has an overall dipole, when you take into account any dipoles across the bonds
    • Intermolecular forces
      • A permanent dipole-dipole force is a weak attractive force between permanent dipoles in neighbouring polar molecules.
      • An intermolecular force is an attractive force between neighbouring molecules.
      • Van der waals' forces are attractive forces between induced dipoles in neighbouring molecules.
    • Structure
      • ionic compounds
      • Covalent compounds
        • A giant covalent lattice is a 3-D structure of atoms, bonded together by strong covalent bonds.
        • A simple molecular lattice is a 3-D structure of molecules, bonded together by weak intermolecular forces.
  • Electron shielding
    • Electron shielding is the repulsion between electrons in different inner shells. shielding reduces the net attractive force from the positive nucleus on the outer-shell electrons.

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