OCR AS Chemistry Key Terms: Unit 1; Electrons, bonding and structure

Full and comprehensive list of all key terms necessary for Unit 1, module 2 - Electrons, bonding and structure for the OCR spec.

Taken, adapted and improved from the OCR textbook and my own personal notes. :)

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Preview of OCR AS Chemistry Key Terms: Unit 1; Electrons, bonding and structure

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Key Definitions for AS ChemistryElectrons, bonding and structureAmber Hornsby
Key Definitions for Unit 1 Chemistry
Electrons, bonding and structure
Atomic orbital ­ a region within an atom that can hold up to two electrons with opposite spins
Compound ­ a substance formed from two or more chemically bonded elements in a fixed ratio
Covalent bond ­ formed by a shared pair of electrons
Dative covalent ­ a shared pair of electrons which has been provided by one of the bonding atoms only
Delocalised electrons ­ electrons shared between more than two atoms
Electronegativity ­ a measure of the attraction of a bonded atom for the pair of electrons in a covalent
Electron configuration ­ arrangement of electrons in an atom
Electron shielding ­ repulsion between electrons in different inner shells. Shielding reduces the net
attractive force from the positive nucleus on the outer electrons
First ionisation energy ­ energy required to remove one electron from each atom in one mole of
gaseous atoms to form gaseous 1+ ions
Giant covalent structure ­ a three-dimensional structure of atoms, bonded together by strong covalent
Giant ionic lattice ­ a three-dimensional structure of oppositely charged ions, held together by strong
ionic bonds
Giant metallic lattice ­ a three-dimensional structure of positive ions and delocalised electrons, bonded
together by strong metallic bonds
Group ­ vertical column in the Periodic Table; elements in the same group have similar chemical properties
and the same number of outer-shell electrons
Hydrogen bond ­ strong dipole-dipole attraction between an electron deficient hydrogen aton and a lone
pair of electrons on a highly electronegative atom (Oxygen, Fluorine or Nitrogen)
Intermolecular force ­ attractive force between neighbouring molecules
Ionic bond ­ the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
Lone pair ­ outer-shell pair of electrons that is not involved in chemical bonding
Metallic bonding ­ electrostatic attraction between positive metal ions and delocalised electrons
Polar covalent ­ a bond which has a permanent dipole
Permanent dipole ­ small charge different across a bond that results from a different in negativity values
Permanent dipole-dipole force ­ weak attraction between permanent dipoles in neighbouring polar
Principle quantum number ­ is a number representing the relative overall energy of each orbital, which
increases with distance from the nucleus
Shell ­ group of atomic orbitals with the same principle quantum number, also known as a main energy
Simple molecular lattice ­ a three-dimensional structure of molecules bonded together by weak
intermolecular forces
Sub-shell ­ is a group of the same type of atomic orbitals (s, p, d or f) within a shell
Successive ionisation energies ­ measure of the energy required to remove each electron in turn
Van der Waals' forces ­ attractive forces between induced dipoles in neighbouring molecules


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