Eating Healthily and Diet Problems

OCR GW Specification.

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What are Carbohydrates made of and what are they stored as?
Carbohydrates are made up of simple sugars like glucose. They are stored in the liver as glycogen or are converted into fats.
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What are fats made of and what are they stored as?
Fats are made up of fatty acids and glycerol. They are stored under the skin as adipose tissue.
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What are proteins made of and what are they stored as?
Proteins are made up of amino acids. They don't get stored.
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What are essential amino acids and why do we need them?
They are amino acids that we get from our diet. We need them because some amino acids can't be made by the body.
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Why do vegetarians need to eat a wide variety of plant proteins?
Unlike animal proteins, plant proteins do not contain all the essential amino acids. So vegetarians need to eat proteins from a wide variety of plant sources in order to get a complete range of amino acids in their diet.
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How does a balanced diet vary between people? Give some examples.
People's diets can vary because of their: Age, Gender and Activity level. For example, women need more iron to replace the iron lost in menstrual blood. Another example is that older people need more calcium to protect themselves from bone diseases.
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Are there other reasons why people eat different diets?
Some people choose to. It can be for religious reasons, personal choices and for medical reasons. e.g. Hindus don't eat cow because they believe they're sacred.
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Why can't some people eat certain foods?
Some people are intolerant to certain foods because they can't make the enzyme needed to digest the food properly. Some people can get a bad reaction when eating certain foods; they are allergic to certain foods.
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What are the functions of Carbohydrates?
Carbohydrates provide energy.
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What are the functions of proteins?
Proteins are needed growth and repair for tissues, and provide energy in emergencies.
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Why do we need fats?
To provide energy, to store energy and to provide insulation.
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What are Vitamins and Minerals for?
Various reasons. e.g. iron is needed to make haemoglobin for healthy blood, Vitamin C is needed to prevent scurvy.
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What's the function of water?
To prevent dehydration.
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What happens if you don't eat enough protein?
Too little protein can cause a condition called kwashiorkor. Common symptom is a swollen stomach.
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What is EAR of protein?
Estimated Average daily Requirement of protein. How much protein you should be eating everyday.
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How does EAR vary?
It varies with age. Teens and children need a lot of protein as they are still growing. Pregnant women and women who are breastfeeding need extra protein to help their baby grow during pregnancy and to produce milk when lactating.
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What is Anorexia Nervosa?
A psychological disorder that leads to self starvation. The sufferer has a poor self image and a desire to be 'perfect.' Causes undernutrition
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What is Bulimia Nervosa?
Another psychological disorder that causes the person to binge eat and to make themselves vomit. Can lead to to tooth decay as the acid in vomit eats away at the tooth enamel.
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What do eating disorders cause?
Eating disorders result in a poor diet and this can host several other illnesses. e.g.kidney failure, heart attacks, muscle wastage, low BP and mineral defieciencies. Eating disorders can be fatal.
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What's an alternative to BMI?
Measuring % body fat, as athletes have lots of muscle that weigh more than fat. So, they can have a high BMI even though they're not overweight. BMI isn't always reliable.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are fats made of and what are they stored as?

Back

Fats are made up of fatty acids and glycerol. They are stored under the skin as adipose tissue.

Card 3

Front

What are proteins made of and what are they stored as?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are essential amino acids and why do we need them?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why do vegetarians need to eat a wide variety of plant proteins?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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