B1

  • Created by: YAZ007
  • Created on: 05-03-17 09:42
Name the nutrient groups and state why we need each one
carbohydrates - release energy, fats - to keep warm and release energy, protein - for growth, cell repair and replacement, fibre- maintain a healthy digestive system, vitamins and minerals - body works healthily
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What does a healthy diet contain?
The right balance of different foods and the right amount of energy
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What can too much salt in our diet lead to?
Too much increases blood pressure for about 30% of the population
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What does processed food contain?
High proportion of fat and/or salt
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How do you lose weight and gain weight?
To lose weight you use more calories than you eat, to gain weigh you use fewer calories than you eat
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How can you lose calorie
Exercise
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Name 4 effects exercise has on your health
regular exercise keeps you healthy, it maintains a good metabolic rate, requires energy so uses lots of calories, if the calories aren't used up they are stored possibly as fat
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Define metabolic rate
The rate at which all the chemical reactions in the cells of the body are carried out
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What is a major metabolic retain?
Respiration which releases energy from the food we eat
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State three things that affect metabolic rate:
activity levels - more energy is needed, ratio of fat to muscle in the body - muscle cells use more energy, genes (inherited factors)
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Which gender would normally have a higher metabolic rate?
Men because they are slightly bigger and have a large proportion of muscle
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How does the temperature affect your metabolic rate?
The warmer it is the lower your metabolic rate as we use less energy to keep our body temperature at 37 degrees celsius.
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What is cholesterol and how is it transported?
A fatty substance made in the liver and used in cell membranes which is transported by the blood
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What affects the amount of cholesterol produced?
It depends on diet and inherited factors
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What increases and reduces blood cholesterol levels?
Saturated fats increase blood cholesterol, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats help to reduce blood cholesterol levels
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What does high levels of cholesterol increase the risk of?
Disease in heart and blood vessels
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Cholesterol is carried around the body by.....
Lipoprotein
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Name the 2 types of lipoprotein
Low density (LDLs) and High density (HDLs)
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Are LDLs and HDLs good or bad and why?
LDLs are bad as they cause heart disease - they carry cholesterol to cells and high levels of LDLs cause fat to build up in the artery, HDLs are good as it carries cholesterol back to the liver and helps prevent cholesterol building up
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What improves the balance of LDLs and HDLs and why should you balance these?
You should balance these to have a healthy heart, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats improve the balance
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Name two factors that influence blood cholesterol levels?
Diet and genes
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Name three important things in the body cholesterol are used for?
Cell membranes, steroid hormones and bile
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Explain the link between cholesterol and heart disease
A high ratio of LDLs to HDLs means you have an increased risk of heart disease, cholesterol is deposited in the walls of coronary arteries. Blockage stops glucose and oxygen reaching the heart muscle cells which can't respire so die
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What are statins and cholesterol blockers used for? Explain how each works
They are drugs that lower blood cholesterol, statins block enzymes in the liver, cholesterol blockers reduce dietary absorption
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Why do people not like statins?
They may encourage people to continue eating unhealthy foods rather than following a healthy diet to reduce their cholesterol
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How can you change the fat intake in your diet to reduce cholesterol?
Eat less saturated fats and more unsaturated
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What is meant by the term "malnourished"?
Happens when you eat the wrong amount of each type of nutrient. Either too much or too little.
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Why does a person become malnourished and give two signs of malnourishment?
They become malnourished if their diet is not balanced, signs of malnourishment include someone being overweight/ underweight or having a deficiency disease
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How is deficiency disease caused?
Lack of vitamins or minerals
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What is obesity?
Excess carbohydrate or fat in the diet and a lack of exercise can lead to obesity, it's a common disorder in developed countries, when someone is 20% or more over maximum recommended body mass, hormonal problems can lead to obesity as well
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What health problems can arise as a result of obesity?
Arthritis (inflammation of the joints), type 2 diabetes (inability to control blood sugar level), high blood pressure, heart disease and is a risk factor for some kinds of cancer
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What health problems can arise as a result of being underweight?
Slow growth (in kids), fatigue, poor resistance to infection, and irregular periods in women though effects depend of what food is lacking
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What can lack of vitamin c cause?
Scurvy - problems with skin, joints and gums
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What is the Body Mass Index equation?
BMI = mass in kg/ (height in m) ²
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What does BMI say about someones health?
Underweight 30
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State the advantages and disadvantages of statin
Advantages - can lower cholesterol to zero, good for people with high cholesterol due to genetics. Disadvantages - need cholesterol to make hormones etc, potentially fatal side effects
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State the advantages and disadvantages of cholesterol blockers
Advantages - good for people with high cholesterol due to diet, less side effects than statins. Disadvantages - can interact badly with other drugs, can cause diarrhoea
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What is a pathogen?
Microorganism that causes disease
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How do individual pathogens develop resistance?
Sometimes a bacteria mutates which may result in the bacteria being resistant to existing antibiotic . When an antibiotic is used, the non-resistant bacteria are killed but the resistant bacteria survive and reproduce; example of natural selection
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What are bacteria?
A single celled microorganism that has no nucleus (but circular DNA that floats in cytoplasm) they are smaller than plant or animal cells
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How so bacteria cause disease?
They reproduce rapidly and produce toxins, but not all toxins cause disease
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What is the difference between bacteria and viruses?
Viruses are much smaller than bacteria and viruses are not cells whereas bacteria are
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What are viruses?
Viruses are pathogens. They reproduce inside other cells damaging them in the process which leads to illness
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Explain how vaccination works
Small amount of dead or inactive pathogen is injected into the body for your white cells to get rid of it then next time that pathogen enter your white blood cells make antibodies faster and in greater numbers, also stimulating memory cells to form
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What are lymphocytes?
A white blood cell, each lymphocyte carries a specific type of antibody - a protein with a chemical 'fit' to a certain antigen. They reproduce quickly to make many copies of the right antibody
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What do lymphocytes do to protect you from disease?
They bind to the pathogen and damage or destroy them, they coat the pathogens, clumping them together so that they are ingested easily by phagocytes, they also bind to the pathogens and release chemical signals attracting more phagocytes
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What are phagocytes?
White blood cells that can pass easily through blood vessel walls in the surrounding tissue and move towards pathogens, they ingest microorganisms and produce toxins to protect your body from disease
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What do phagocytes do to protect you from disease?
They ingest and absorb the pathogens/ toxins, they release an enzyme to destroy the pathogens (antitoxins which counteract the toxins released), after absorbing a pathogen they may send chemical messages to lymphocytes
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Outline what Ignaz Semmelweis did
He noted that death rates on maternity wards were much lower when midwives delivered compared to doctors - he realised doctors were transferring disease from surgery. Encouraged doctors to wash hands and kill bacteria. Death rates fell
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Why weren't Ignaz Semmelweis ideas always accepted?
His ideas were mocked, many thought hat childbed fever was God's punishment. No-one had seen bacteria or viruses - hard to believe that disease was caused by something invisible, doctors didn't like the idea that they were killing instead of curing
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How can painkillers and antibiotics be used to treat disease?
Painkillers - relieve symptoms (don't kill pathogen), antibiotics - kill bacteria
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What are antibiotics?
Medicines that help cure diseases caused by bacteria. They kill bacteria inside the body
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Why can't antibiotics be used to kill viruses?
Viruses replicate inside human cells so the antibiotic can't reach them or would kill the human cell
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Why is overuse of antibiotics a problem and how can we reduce this problem?
The bacteria could become resistant and become even harder to treat we can reduce this problem by not using antibiotics for minor infections
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Explain how antibiotic resistance develops in bacteria
Bacteria mutate by chance, bacteria with mutation are not killed by antibiotic these cells can survive to reproduce and add the gene for resistance to their offspring - population of resistant bacteria increases
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What does a healthy diet contain?

Back

The right balance of different foods and the right amount of energy

Card 3

Front

What can too much salt in our diet lead to?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does processed food contain?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How do you lose weight and gain weight?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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