B1 - Health and fitness

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  • B1 - Health and fitness
    • Eating Healthily
      • a balanced diet consists of carbohydrates, fats, protein, fibre, water and vitamins and minerals.
        • fibre keeps your guts in good shape and carbohydrates provide energy.
        • Fats insulate, provide as an energy store and provide energy.
          • Proteins aid growth of tissue and act as an emergency energy source, water prevents dehydration and vitamins have various function eg preventing scurvy. Minerals such as iron is needed to make haemoglobin.
      • Carbohydrates are made up of simple sugars eg glucose and are stored in the liver as glycogen.
        • Fats are made up of fatty acids and glycerol. They are stored under the skin and around organs as adipose tissue.
          • Proteins are made of amino acids and dont get stored.
      • a balanced diet is different for everyone.
        • Children need more protein for growth.older people need more calcium to prevent degenerative bone diseases like osteoporosis.
        • females need more iron to replace that lost in menstrual blood.
        • active people need protein for muscle development
    • Diet Problems
      • too little protein can cause a condition called kwashiorkor.
        • a common symptom is a swollen stomach
      • EAR = 0.6 x body mass (kg)
        • varies based on age/pregnancy, etc
      • Eating disorders
        • anorexia and bulemia nervosa can cause under nutrition.
          • Anorexia leads to self starvation whereas bulemia leads to binge eating followed by induced vomiting.
            • They can lead to kidney/liver failure, heart attacks, deficiencies, tooth decay and low blood pressure, meaning they can be fatal.
      • BMI = Body mass / (height)2
    • Fitness and blood pressure
      • Blood is pumped round the body under pressure.
        • blood is pumped round by contractions of the heart.
        • blood leaves the heart and flows through arteries. blood is taken by capillaries to every cell in the body.
        • The blood then flows back to the heart through veins. The pressure gets lower as the blood flows through the system.
        • Cystolic pressure- when blood pressure is highest when the heart contracts. This shouldn't be higher than 135.
          • diastolic pressure is when the pressure is at its lowest. This should be no less than 85.
            • smoking, drinking being overweight and being under stress can increase blood pressure
      • being fit is a measure of how well you can perform physical tasks
        • fitness measures strength, speed, agility flexibility and stamina.
      • being healthy is being free of infections or diseases.
    • High blood pressure and heart disease
      • Cigarettes contain lots of chemicals which can increase blood pressure.
        • Carbon monoxide combines with haemoglobin in red blood cells reducing the amount of oxygen they can carry.
        • To make up for this so the tissue can get enough oxygen, the heart rate has to increase. (the heart contracts more frequently).
        • Nicotine also increases heart rate. The heart contracts more often, increasing blood pressure.
      • poor diet can lead to heart disease. Saturated fats cause a build up of cholestrol.
        • Cholestrol makes cell membranes, however too much of it means it will build up in arteries.
        • This forms plaques in the artery wall, narrowing the lumen. this restricts the flow of blood.
          • causing heart attacks.
      • narrow arteries restrict bloodflow to the heart increasing the risk of heart attacks.
        • If a thrombosis occurs in a narrow coronary artery it may become completely blocked
          • This cuts off the oxygen supply and causes a heart attack




Very helpful!

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