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What was Bowlby against?
The learning theory that attachment is a secondary drive
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What is the basis of Blowlby's ethological theory?
That there is mutual attachement
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What did Bowlby thing was essential for forming attachment?
Object permanence
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What do grown up children with insecure disorganised attachment try to do?
Try to control or embarass their parents
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What are the benefits of secure attachment (give 4)?
More problem solving so better cognitive development at 7 years, more socially competent because better at emotion regulation, remember more positive than negative events, better memory for responsive than rejecting stories
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What are the 4 internal frameworks of attachment?
Autonomous, Dismissing, Pre-occupied, Unresolved
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How many children in Clarke's study were found to be insecurely attached?
36% of those in childcare, 29% of those not in childcare
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What does NICHD say about childcare?
Is only when poory attached already that childcare has a negative effect on attachment
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Why might infants react more positively to father's play?
Tends to be more physical and unpredictable
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How much variation in attachment security did Ainsworth find maternal sensitivity accounted for?
85%, but this hasn't been replicated
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Is interaction style innate?
No, so can use interventions to improve attachment security
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How much does maternal sensitivity explain internal working model?
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Why is the idea that temperament affects attachment security not necessarily valid?
Mum is likely to have same interaction style with other siblings regardless of their temperament
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What is the strongest predictor of attachment security?
Mind-mindedness, aka affect attunement
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What does labeling infant's mental dialogue do?
It creates infant's expectations of appropriate dialogues so can predict ToM at 5 years
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What happens during postnatal depression?
Mother becomes less sensitive, more controlling, more self oriented
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What happens when marriages break down?
Parents can appear fearful
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What evidence is there the 12 months old use social referencing?
In visual cliff experiment they look to caregiver to see how to act
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What do 2 months old do which shows they use social referencing?
Become distressed and disinterested when mother's face is out of synch with her vocalisations
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How long does it take to learn complex emotional expressions?
2-4 months, some not til end of 2nd year, because require cognitive skills
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How can linguistic expressions be used to find out about link between emotion and behavioural development?
At 18-28 months infants found to use emotion terms to explain own and other's behaviour
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Can infants younger than 7 months distinguish emotion?
yes but don't truly understand them.
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What emotional capabilities do 3 year olds have?
Know which emotions match basic situations even when they're non-egocentric
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Why aren't 4 year olds able to use knowledge or beliefs to predict emotions?
Because fail to integrate beliefs and predictions. Can't do this until 6 years.
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By 7 years children can understand emotions even if they have been masked.How long does it take to understand relief an disappointment (check) though?
until 10/14 years
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Do 6 year olds understand that 2 contrasting emotions can be felt simultaneously?
No, even by 10 years only 2 thirds can do this
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When do display rules develop?
Before able to regulate emotions
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How long does it take to learn to regulate emotions?
until 3 years to control negative emotions and longer to hide positive emotions. Can't understand the difference between true and displayed emotions until 6 years.
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Who found boys are more physical?
Pellegrin and Smith. Found they spend more time outside, more time fighting and more complex. cooperative, competitive games
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What kind of play do girls engage in?
Some evidence that they use more pretend play. Generally indoors more and more intimacy and exclusivity in lay so play in pairs of same age
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When do infants begin to interact with peer strangers?
Below 23 months, adults will scaffold this play
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Once infants decentrise from objects how does emergence of play develop?
At 12 months play with mother, language emeges during 2nd year so in 3rd ear invent rules for play and less reliant on props
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How much time do infants spend playing?
At least 2--30% of the day
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What is the cognitive theory of play?
Play gives space from cognitive demands which explains why children can concentrate better after. Also play allows development of problem solving skills
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How does exploration in play aid development?
Improves motor problem solving
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What happened in Smilansky's study?
Found more sociodramatic play: better language devleopmen. But this study relied on adult intervention for added stimulation and actually these results haven't been replicated.
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What did Dochet (1998) find out?
Pizza study. Found evidence that play improves socie-emotional skills because those given intervention had greater ToM skills
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What evidence is there that language devopment improves socio-emotional skills?
Taylor and Carson (1997) found those who were better able to decribe the blocks the were playing with had better social skills. This has been replicated by Lalond and Chandler (1995) who used teacher ratings to check social skill level.
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After rythmic and exercise play has been discovered, how much time is spent doing rough and tumble play?
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During the sociomotor period object permanence is achieved. What age are infants then?
9/10 months
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At what age is play just parallel and when does it become coordicated?
Parallel at 2-3 years, cooprdinated beyond 3 years
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How can language be used as a form of play?
Autobiographical, to practice grammar, to invent rhythms
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What did Gottesman find out about pretend play?
That is has a central role in friendship development
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What is the sociometry technique of the sociogram?
Ask children who is popular in class and who they like
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What has the sociogram found out about neglected children?
They tend to observe others and are liked by teachers but not peers
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What has the sociogram found about rejected children?
They are rejected by peers because they are non cooperative and are not well liked because they are disruptive
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How much time is spent doing pretend play when 1/2 years?
5-20% of day
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When does sociodramatic play start?
4 years
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What evidence is there against piaget that infants actually can tell the difference between real and pretend?
Parents use more social referencing and exaggerating when pretending
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Who said pretend play is crucial for normal development?
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Smith said pretend play is not essential but it does help development, what is the name of this approach?
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Who said pretend play was an epiphenomenon and what did they mean by this?
Piaget: pretend play is just an index of other skills
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What evidence is there that pretend play improves perspective taking leading to higher ToM?
Sociodratic play intervention increases ToM and 30% of those with imaginary friends describe them using mental terms.
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What is the benefit of higher mind-mindedness?
Better ToM and begin playing earlier.
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What does sibling play at 33 months predict?
False belief performance at 40 months because learn about perspective taking
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What evidence is there that siblings are not essential for high ToM skills?
In China single child is norm. No difference between single and sibling children on any measure (Chen et al, 1994).
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4 year olds make dicriminations against those of different ethnicities, when does prejudice increase and when does it decrease?
Increases between 4-7 years but due to more flexible thinking about difference between individuals and the groups they belong to, it decreases again when 8 years old
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Why is discrimanation based on race more marked in girls?
Comparison of differences leads to negative evaluations and because spend more time in small groups, don't learn about the similarities.
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When does body awareness really start to develop?
2-3 years
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What did Piaget find 24 months would do which 18 months wouldn't?
Get off a mat to pick it up
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At 17-30 months children are abe to recognise self but what do they still do?
Continue making scale errors
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Why are more errors made on body size awareness tasks than social reasoning tasks according to Branwell (2007) at 17-30 months?
Because little experience yet of walking. Walking improves scale reasoning.
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Why are 3-4 year olds unable to differentiate between head and body in drawings?
Planning difficulties
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Who did Thompson et al (1997) find were mose dissatisfied with their bodies and wished to be thinner?
White 9 year old girls
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What is the 20 statements test used for?
to get a hierachy of the priority people give their attributes at different stages of development
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At what age does Barrett (2006) find nationality becomes an important aspect of the categorical self?
6 years
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When do children start making comparisons between objects?
3-4 months
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What is the fixed sense of self an example of?
An individualistic concept
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What did Vygotsky say about comments from others?
They become part of the inner evaluative speech
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Wha is kindehenschemn?
Cuteness that parents respond to
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Do 5 month olds have self recognition?
Sort of but don't pass mirror dot test until 9 months , others say 24 months
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When do children start using personal pronouns and become possessive?
24 months
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When does the extended self develop?
Not by 2-3 years because these children don't move a sticker after elay, but does develop by 4-5 years (Povinellini et al, 1999)
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What are sensorimotor schemas used for?
To form self vs other comparisons, Piaget says by 8 months children can understand consequences of the environment and people
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Self recognition is faster when securely attached, why?
Because turn taking, facial responsiveness and language use all contribute to self recogntion
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What 2 feelings are a consequence of self recogntion?
empathy and embarassment
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Who found self esteem is basically stable over lifetime but peaks at 60 years?
Orth (2010)
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What is Harter's approach to studying self esteem?
Ask chidren (give under 8 years pictures) which descriptions fit them best and by how much regarding sport, social life, school, physicial appearance and behaviour
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Erikson (1959) said social challenges contribute to 8 life stages. What 3 social challenge styles are there?
Autonomy, self doubt, shame
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What is coppersmith's self esteem inventory?
Gave 10-11 year old boys 58 statements to measure self esteem.
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What did Coppersmith find out about self esteem?
Those with highest self esteem had parents who gave them encouragement, respect and acceptance
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What was Adler's idea about how self esteem develops?
All start off in life feeling inferior but after mastering environment become superior.
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When does gender constancy develop and when does it become stable despite changing attitudes?
3-4 years, becomes stable when 7 years old
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Where is the proposed sexually dimorphic nucleus?
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How much bigger is the SDN in male compared to female rats?
3-8 times bigger
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How much bigger is the SDN in hetero compared to **** males?
2 times bigger
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How does selective attention lead to gender identity?
Pay attention to gender appropriate information and compare self to others. Comparisons are reinforced by communication.
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What physical changes happen during adolescence?
Myelination of the PFC, 41% fewer synapses than when born due to synaptic pruning
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What happens when girls mature early?
Less popular so behaviour problems
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What happens when boys mature early?
More anxiety but can be more successful
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What aspects of social cognition define aolescence?
egocentric, invinsible, hypersensitive to ostracism
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How do we know adolescents are hypersensitive to ostracism?
Cyber ball game for 11-14 years
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Dumonthell (2010) used the directors task and found adolescents...
Have an immature interaction between ToM and executive functions
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What are the 3 levels of moral reasoning?
Pre-conventional, conventional and principled (aka post-contrained
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Why is morality no the best indicator of perspective taking ability?
Not based on universal principles and it doesn't predict actual behaviour
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What shapes adolescence?
Shift in locomation because more freedom to explore and choose how to spend time
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What did Bruno (1996) find out about gender differences in time allocation?
american boys spend less time doing people directed activities and more time relaxing by passive entertainment
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Who studied cultural differences in time allocation?
Alasker and Flarner (1999)
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What did Anna Freud say the libidinal force surge during adolescence did?
Makes the ego break down which results in behavioural changes in ofer to cope.
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Who said adolescence was a time of storm and strss?
Hall: said that because less primitive areas are developing people experience emotional turbulence
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What did Lewin argue about storm and stress?
Behavioural disturbances only arise when goals have both valences
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What did Chein et al (2011) find out about delinquency?
13-16 year olds took more risks on a car game
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When does alcohol have a more severe effect on cognitive tasks than adulthood?
15 years because the brain is still developing
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What can cannabis do?
Result in significant cognitive decline when taken before 18 years, effects can last at least a year (Blakemore, 2012)
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What are Marcias 2 categories for people who have commited to a decision about who they will be and what's the difference?
Idendity achieved, when they've explored as well and Foreclosure, when they haven't explored
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If people have had a period of exploration but still don't know what they want to be, what category do they fulfil? What if they haven't even explored?
Motivation. If they haven't explored then they are Identity Confused.
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Why does Blos think adolescence is a strange time?
Because there's conflict between a need for independence and need for resources and because psychological development lags behind physical development
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What is needed for an adolescent to become fully atonomous?
to be given more responsibilities so less dependent
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What kind of parenting style is beneficial during adolescence?
Authoritarian because these parents are very demanding but responsive too
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How many epochs did Sullivan say life could be broken into and what are the different stages of adolescence?
6. Early adolescence is where intimacy is needed with the same sex and late adolescence is where people seek romantic commitment
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Why did Erikson say adolescents had identity confusion?
Because they no longer fit child role but not yet adult role so don't have a consistent self image.
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What was Huesman et al's (2003) study based on?
Based on 1986 and 1984 studies which were carried out in 5 countries useing 587 children aged 6-10 years old.A 3 year follow up found TV viewing in grade 1 predicted later agression
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How did Huesman et als early studies measure agression?
Used a peer nominated index where asked each child to report who in the class engaged in what aggression
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What are the 5 theories for why aggressive tv watching can lead to aggressive behaviour?
1. cathartic, 2. imitation, 3. arousal associated with positive feelings, 4. desensitised, 5. learn schemas for conflict resolution
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What factors were initially thought to contribute to aggression?
Poor child rearing, socioeconomic deprivation, poor peer relations, frustration, beliefs, neuropsychological abnormality
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What were Huesman et al's (2003) 4 aims?
To find out id early exposure predicts later aggression. Gender difference? Identifiability/believability? Is it just that those who are already more agressive choose to watch more violent programmes?
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How did Huesman et al (2003) study tv predictin violence?
Used 329 of the original quota, now 20-25 years. Measure tv violence viewing. Use self report, other people and archives to measure aggressive behaviour.
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What did Huesman et al (2003) find out?
Those who watched more aggressive TV during childhood were more agressive as adults, males r = .21, females r = .19.This could not be accounted for by parent rearing, SES or intellect alone.
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What were the 3 main gender differences in Huesman et al's study?
Only females had a correlation between TV and indirect aggression. Boys who identified and believed in tv were most at risk. Females more likely to use violent tv watching to make their own behaviour seem justified and feel better about self.
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What is the ACT Against Violence program?
Teaches strategies such as parental co-viewing and school based attitude intervention to reduce aggression.
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Was there any effect of early aggression on subsequent TV violence viewing and what does this show?
No. so early tv violence watching led to aggressive behaviour. Not that those who were alread more aggressive chose to watch more violent TV.
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Card 2


What is the basis of Blowlby's ethological theory?


That there is mutual attachement

Card 3


What did Bowlby thing was essential for forming attachment?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What do grown up children with insecure disorganised attachment try to do?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What are the benefits of secure attachment (give 4)?


Preview of the front of card 5
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