TB9 D&L Lecture 2 Reading, Play and peer relationships

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  • Created on: 22-07-16 13:40
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  • TB9 D&L reading 2, Play and Peer relationships
    • Key definitions
      • Parallel activity, playing near each other without interaction
      • Co-operative/ associative activity. interaction & performing similar tasks
      • Parten, categories of social participation
        • First four (unsociable) categories declined with age
        • Categories involving interaction with peers increased
      • Sociodramatic play; child is enacting a role
    • Siblings
      • Dunn & Kendrick (1982) 40 first born children study
        • First borns showed jealousy of new sibling, directed towards PARENTS
          • Interest and affection toward SIBLING
      • Practice skills including;
        • TOM; appearing @ approx age 4 years, maybe as early as 18 months
          • Ruffman et al (1998), number of older (NOT younger)  siblings contributed linearly to false belief under-standing
        • Conflict resolution
        • Older sibling in pretend play
          • Comple-mentary role play
      • Apprentice-ship model
        • Children acquire TOM from adults, older siblings and older children in 'extended family'
    • Only children
      • Only affected social preference, often labelled as aggro and withdrawn
      • Chinese only children
        • No significant differences, due to % of population
        • But! Do less well on TOM and conflict resolution  at 3-4 years
    • Social play
      • Piaget's 3 main stages
        • Sensorimotor (infancy)
        • Symbolic play (15-6 years)
        • Games with rules (6+ years)
        • Smilansky's (1968) 4 stages in development of play
          • 1. Functional
          • 2. Constructive, more mature than sensori, but not pretend
          • 3. Dramatic
          • 4. Games with rules
      • Rubin's play hierarchy
        • Based on social participation AND levels of play
        • 1. Assumes a non-universally accepted develop-mental progression of solitary play
        • 2. Omits other kinds of play inc. physical
      • Parent in pretend play
        • Adult modelling of pretend play increased immediate pretend play (facilitatory)
        • Object based pretence
      • Gottman (1983), managing levels of closeness (amity)
        • 4 year olds
        • Escalation and de-escalation levels of play
        • Risk & reward
      • Sex differences
        • Fem; frequent and more sophisticated pretend play
        • Mother-daughter, symbolic play & fantasy play
        • Evidence of sex-role stereo-typicality
    • Functions of play
      • Tutoring
        • Early results suggesting an improvement confounded by Hawthorne effect (some > none) AND no blind testing
          • General adult stimulation more important than adult pretend play
            • General posi correlation between TOM and pretend play
      • Intervention studies
        • Dockett (1998); Australian preschool, 4 years old
          • Amount and complexity of pretend increased in intervention =/ control
          • Intervention did more make believe activities post-test
          • Intervention showed signif increases on TOM  from immediate > delayed post test
          • Small sample size
      • Dominance hierarchys
        • Expressed through (male) physical activity play
    • Imaginary companions
      • Paracosm; imagined and detailed fantasy world
      • 25-50% of 3-8 year olds have ICs

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