TB9 D&L Lecture 4 Reading; Adolescence

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  • Created on: 03-08-16 12:12
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  • TB9 D&L; Adolescence
    • Key terms
      • Social development
        • Growth
          • Physical, mental, social, hobbies
        • Differentiation
          • Differences between individuals aswell as between childhood and adolescence
        • Synthesis
          • Synthesizing these changes into a coherent approach to the world
      • Central goals and challenges that should be achieved before adulthood
        • Autonomous and emotionally regulated
        • Can form same and other sex relationships with peers
        • A sense of identity
    • Morality
      • Main theorists
        • Piaget
          • First to study child moral judgements
          • Child moral judgement governed by unilateral respect for adults and adult rules
          • Age-related changes (around 10 years) re; intentions, roles and moral conflicts
        • Kohlberg
          • 5 (6) stages of judgement revealed in reflections about dilemmas
          • 1) Hetero-nomous morality
            • Right and wrong determined by powerful adults
          • 2) Instrumental morality
            • Other people have intentions etc, 2 sides to an argument
          • 3) Interpersonal normative morality
            • Aim to be seen as good, guilt from been perceived as 'bad'
          • 4) Social system morality
            • Moral judgement from the congruence of individual action with rules and laws
          • 5) Human rights/social welfare morality
            • Using ethical principles to guide moral judgement
          • Regression of stages is rare
          • Sequential progression of moral stages
          • Strong positive linear relationship between educational attainment and moral stage
          • Higher stage reasoning linked to prosocial behaviours
      • Behaviour is multiply determined as opposed to determined by stage
    • Identity
      • Main theorists
        • Erik Erikson
          • Epigenetic principle
            • Parts of an organism develop sequentially until the functioning whole is complete
            • In terms of identity, proposed a stage model where each stage characterized by a specific conflict that needs resolution
          • Moratorium
            • Identification with different values, beliefs, ideas because of unstable and inconsistent self-image
      • Two main research domains
        • Process of identity formation
          • Most 15-18 year olds are in moratorium
        • Development of self concept
          • Change in both CONTENT and STRUCTURE
            • Adolescents emphasise internal characteristics & psychological traits
              • Self = pluralistic
              • A challenge is reconciling 'uniqueness' of the self
            • Heightened awareness of the self and others 'inner worlds'


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