Cognitive Development TB8 D&L

  • Created by: Jess213
  • Created on: 24-04-18 10:12
Information Processing
Input - Mental Operations - Output = soft scale = computers are a metaphor for thought vs ********* = computer models are a simulation of thought
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Memory in Preverbal infants
Infants habituate to pictures they have already seen which shows remembering of the old image;
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Encoding
1. Familiarization time - 12m = 2 shapes-10secs but 6m = 20 secs; 2. 3 levels of stimuli, 2/3m = 1st level, 4m = 2 levels and 5/6m = 3 levels 4/17/20-30 seconds for each level
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Retention
- 2m could not retain the information, 3m forgot the leg kicking in 1 week, 6 months after 2 weeks; train and buttons used >18 months and found that they could retain information up to 13 weeks
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Retrieval
2-3 month olds need the same cue, but location could change but 6-9 months could use similar example and different location; rehearsal, organization, elaboration can be used increase in number of strategies used, meta-memory = understanding memory
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Overall Memory
STM performance increases with age, Dyslexia - phonological loop deficit, Dyscalculia (visuo-spatial deficit) and ADHD (central executive deficit)
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Long-term Memory
- Procedural/implicit are developed before declarative/explicit, infants have memory for object action and showed they can imitate behaviour. Semantic memory develops before episodic due to development of language, social sharing and self-concept.
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LTM 2
Smell study, 4 year olds could tel adults what it smelt of and how they knew it smelt like that whereas 3 year olds were not able to explain how or show why it smelt that way - may be a language not an LTM problem
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Attention
Orientation = shown in the giraffe study, flash of light and gaze shifting are early reflexes.
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Alerting
Arousal of the attentional system through a cue that indicates presence of a target. 0-6 months of dyadic joint attention; 6 m = follow eye gaze of an adult; 8-9m follow pointing cues; alerting improves in early years and cues become more useful
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EF - WM
Told to remember the last word you heard from a category in a list of random words, requires constant updating - Occluded objects - 8m could represent it for 2-3secs but a 14m old can for 10 secs
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EF - Inhibition
Increases from 4-8yrs old; STROOP task can show this; looking times at cards which give high/low wins/losses compared to steady wins/losses, children should inhibit looking at high/low cards.
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EF - Shifting
Add/subtract/switch 3, it is much harder to switch between the two and Senn et al (2004) showed that having to shift card sorting criteria develops later in children and adolesence
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Brain Regions
Frontal areas e.g. PFC is activated for EF; longitudinal structural study showed that the PFC is one of the last areas of the brain to mature (~20); Improving EF = story-telling, Cog-med, exercise, mindfulness, education and martial arts
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ADHD a)
2-5% of children, inattention, hyperactive, impulsive, 70-80% heritability, linked to dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways, but pregnancy factors e.g. malnutrition and exposure to toxins can all affect ADHD.
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ADHD b)
Treatment can use pyschosocial e.g. parent, social skill and cognitive training and classroom interventions. These are important for co-morbidities, self-esteem and relationships to help long-term management but blind assessors could not tell
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ADHD c)
Drugs can also be used as treatment, psychostimulants of noradrenergic reuptake inhibitors; systematic review showed that these drugs reduced symptoms in ADHD. However, you have to maintain them and the long-term effects are unknown.
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ADHD d)
In the US the prevalence ADHD is 8.8% in the USA whereas in the UK it is 1.7%. This may show a result of cultural expectations and differences in classification.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Infants habituate to pictures they have already seen which shows remembering of the old image;

Back

Memory in Preverbal infants

Card 3

Front

1. Familiarization time - 12m = 2 shapes-10secs but 6m = 20 secs; 2. 3 levels of stimuli, 2/3m = 1st level, 4m = 2 levels and 5/6m = 3 levels 4/17/20-30 seconds for each level

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

- 2m could not retain the information, 3m forgot the leg kicking in 1 week, 6 months after 2 weeks; train and buttons used >18 months and found that they could retain information up to 13 weeks

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

2-3 month olds need the same cue, but location could change but 6-9 months could use similar example and different location; rehearsal, organization, elaboration can be used increase in number of strategies used, meta-memory = understanding memory

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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