TB3 Development and Language Topics

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  • TB3 Development & Language Topics
    • Lecture 1; Infant abilities
      • The METHODS used for testing infants
        • High Amplitude Sucking (HAS)
        • Looking time methods
          • Habituation
          • Violation of Expectation
          • Spontaneous visual preference
        • Physiological measures
          • Heart rate
          • High-density event related potentials
        • Eye Movement
      • The ABILITIES that young infants have
        • Preferential looking, indicating ability to discriminate between stimuli
        • Object permanence
        • Experience expectant behaviours
          • Violation of expectation
        • Reflexes
          • Orienting reflexes
          • Innate sucking
          • Crying
          • Habituation/ Boredom'
      • Empirical EVIDENCE for these abilities
        • (See seperate resource)
    • Lecture 2; Brain Development
      • Development during the...
        • Prenatal period
          • Structural and neural development
          • Cellular development
        • Post-natal period
          • Synapto-genesis
          • Synaptic pruning
            • Synapto-genesis
          • Processes in neural development
      • Behavioural correlates of early brain development
        • Involuntary reflexes
          • What are they?
          • 'Moro' reflex
          • Grasping/ Darwinian reflex
          • Stepping reflex
        • Voluntary motion
      • Environ-mental influences on development
        • Teratology; the study of adverse circumstances of exposure to environ-mental agents
          • Prenatal brain has been shown to be sensitive to negative influences
            • Alcohol = Fetal alcohol syndrome
              • Characteristics
            • Malnutrition
            • As-well as positive ones!
              • Brain growth and environ-mental stimulation
                • Plasticity
        • Brain growth and environ-mental stimulation
          • Plasticity
        • Research into neural effects of environ-mental effects (e.g neglect)
      • Lecture 3; Socio-emotional Development
        • Are human infants BORN social?
          • Evolutionary perspectives
            • Bowlby (1969), Social baby 'character-istics'
            • Lorenz (1943), 'Baby schema', 'facial 'cuteness'
          • Parent- infant interactions
          • Expressions
            • Smiling
              • What are these used for from an evopsych perspective?
                • Crying
            • Emotional expressions
              • Facial expressions developing before birth?
              • Basic v.s complex emotions
                • HOWEVER, complex emotions require a sense of self, do very young infants have a sense of self?
                  • Do young infants express COMPLEX  emotions?
                • The distinction between them
              • Research into infants displaying basic and complex expressions
                • Implications and conflict in the research
            • Crying
          • Social referencing and expectations
        • Do young infants express COMPLEX  emotions?
        • Can newborns IMITATE the actions of others?
          • Neonatal imitation research
            • Controversial!
            • Reflexes v.s voluntary motion
          • Reflexes v.s voluntary motion
        • Do newborns have a preference for VISUAL stimuli?
          • Human facial preference
            • Innate predisposition?
          • (Not visual) Do infants also show a preference for human voices?
      • Lecture 4; Gesture Development
        • DEVELOP MENT of gesture in infancy
          • Related to social and speech cognition
          • Oral-motor synchrony
          • Babbling and rhythmic movement
            • Silent babbling
          • Word comprehen sion & Pointing
        • FUNCTIONS of gesture
          • Pointing
            • Declarative pointing
              • Social cognition
            • Sharing mental states
              • 'Helping'!
          • Enactive naming e.g drinking from an empty cup
            • Aka symbolic gestures
              • Cultural differences in symbolic gestures
            • What is it/ what is it for?
          • Gestures as preceding and signalling oncoming changes in speech
        • Can ENCOURAG ING gesture encourage language development?
          • The rationale behind this claim
            • Evidence
          • Wider benefits of enhanced gesture
            • Improved synchronic interactions
            • Eliciting caregiver responsiveness
              • Possibly change mother perspective of infant?
              • Increase sensitivity?
              • Enhance maternal mind-mindedness?
                • What is mind-mindedness?
                  • Why is this relavent?
            • Evaluation of baby signing
              • Enhance maternal mind-mindedness?
                • What is mind-mindedness?
                  • Why is this relavent?
              • General conclusions
      • Tutorial; Infant Face Perception

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