Classic Study (cognitive psychology)

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What is the cognitive classic study?
Baddeley (1966), testing the influence of acoustic and semantic similarity an the long term and short term memory
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What was the aim?
To investigate the influence of acoustic and semantic word similarity on learning recall in short term and long term memory
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What type of experiment was it?
Laboratory Experiment
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What was the sample?
80 men and women from the Applied Psychology Research Unit subject panel
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What experimental design did he use?
Independent groups
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What were the 4 conditions?
List A: 10 acoustically similar words, List B: 10 acoustically dissimilar words, List C: 10 semantically similar words, List D: 10 semantically dissimilar words
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Which conditions were the baseline control groups?
The dissimilar lists (B and D)
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What was the procedure to test short term memory for each condition (initial phase)?
The word lists were presented 1 word every 3 secs on a projector, after they had to do 6 tasks involving memory for digits, they then had recall the words after 1 min in correct order with words in front of them in a random order
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Why were the participants allowed to have the words in front of them when recalling?
Because it was a test of sequence and not learning the words
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What was the procedure to test long term memory with each condition?
They had to do a 15 min interference task after doing the short term recall test, it involved copying 8 digit sequences, then they had a surprise test on the word list sequence again
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What were the results for the short term memory test?
Acoustically similar sounding words were recalled a lot less than the dissimilar sounding words in the initial phase, however it didnt have an effect on LTM recall
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What were the results for the long term memory test?
Semantically similar words were harder to recall later on than semantically dissimilar and they were recalled significantly fewer
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What is the conclusion?
Short term memory is largely acoustic and long term memory is largely but not exclusively semantic
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Generalisability
Cant be generalised, lab experiment, lacks mundane realism, cant be generalised to everyday contexts
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Reliability
It is reliable because it can be easily replicated, good controls, Baddeley made sure he had a lot of control over variables, easy to draw a cause and effect relationship
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Validity
Isnt valid, lacks mundane realism, made to rehearse the list 4 times, lacks external validity and ecological validity
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What was the aim?

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To investigate the influence of acoustic and semantic word similarity on learning recall in short term and long term memory

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What experimental design did he use?

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