BIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO ABNORMALITY

BIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO ABNORMALITY

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  • Created by: Isabelle
  • Created on: 02-06-11 18:19

BIOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO ABNORMALITY

WHAT ARE THE TWO ASSUMPTIONS OF THE BIOLOGICAL APPROACH?

HOW HAS BRAIN SCANNING BACKED UP BIOLOGICAL APPROACH?

HOW HAS RESEARCH INTO BEHAVIOURAL GENETICS BACH UP BA?

HOW HAS DRUG TREATMENT BASED ON BIOLOGICAL/MEDICAL APPROACH BACKED UP BA?

WHAT ARE THE PROBLEMS WITH THIS APPROACH?

WHY IS IT A PROBLEM THIS APPROACH IS REDUCTIONIST?

HOW HAAVE DRUG TREATMENTS SHOWN WEAKNESSES IN BA?

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BIOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO ABNORMALITY

  • Psychopathology will be caused by changes in the structure / function of brain
  • Most behaviours, normal and disordered involve a inherited component

Brain scanning has identified biolgoical aspects of many psychopathologies (e.g. depression = lower levels of seretonin / schizophrenia = overactivity of dopamine)

Identified genetic/inherited component in many psychopathologies e.g. schizophrenia, biopal disorder

Drug treatments targets biological bases of disorders can be very effective

Assumes most important aspect of disorder is biological changes in brain, rather than looking at symptons and enviromental influences e.g. low seritonin levels can be due to enviromental stressors

Not effective for all disorders e.g. anorexia and phobias

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PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACHES

PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH

FREUD PROPOSED PERSONALITY IS MADE UP OF WHAT 3 ELEMENTS?

ACCORDING TO THESE ELEMENTS HOWN CAN PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS OCCUR?

WHAT ARE THE STAGES OF FREUDS PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT?

HOW DOES PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT RELATE TO PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS?

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BIOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO ABNORMALITY

id: born with, operates on pleasure principle / ego: operates on reality principle, balances demands of real world with instinctive drives of id, develops in early childhood / superego: personal moral conscience - develops later in childhood

if ego fails to balence demands of id and superego psychological disorders may result - dominance of id may lead to destructive tendencies - superego dominates individual may be unable to experience pleasurable gratification

Oral stage / Anal stage / Phallic stage / Latency period

If a child become fixated at one stage this will have affects on their adult behaviour - e.g. fixation at...oral stage = overdependance in relationship / Anal stage = OCD

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PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACHES

WHAT SUPPORTS FREUDS PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH?

WHAT CASE STUDY SUPPORTS THIS APPROACH?

WHAT ARE THE PROBLEMS WITH THE PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH?

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PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACHES

  • It identifies how adult behaviour can be influenced by early childhood experiences
  • Influenced contempoary psychodynamin approaches - ideas such as fixation, denial have been used in relation to adult psychopathology

Case of Anna O - inability to drink traced back to witnessing a dog drinking from her glass - disturbed eye movements traced back to looking after her father and having to hide her anxiety and tears

  • Overemphasis on patients past rather than current problems
  • Overemphasis on sexual experiences rather than exploring other soical factors
  • emphasis on early childhood may result in parental blame
  • Theory is focused on males - Electra complex, female equivilant of Oedipus complex, lacks detail almost an afterthought
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PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACHES

THE BEHAVIOURAL APPROACH

WHAT ARE THE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE BEHAVIOURAL APPROACH?

WHAT ARE THE THREE MAIN FORMES OF LEARNING?

HOW CAN CLASSICAL CONDITIONING FORM PSYCHOPATHOLOGY?

WHAT WAS THE STUDY BY WATSON AND RAYER THAT SUPPORTS THIS?

WHAT IS THE SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY?

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PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACHES

all behaviour is learned whether it is normal or abnormal

Classical conditioning, Operant conditioing, Social learning theory

Phobias can be developed throigh classical conditioning - traumatic experiences leads to conditioning of fear to object/situation

Classically conditioned 11 month child to fear fluffy animals - presented white rat with sudden loud noise which caused fear - child coditioned to associate rat with fear

Focuses on learning through observation and imitation e.g. eating disorders, women observe and imitate slim models and film stars

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PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACHES

HOW DO THE DISORDERS DEPRESSION AND ANOREXIA NERVOSA SUPPORT OPPERANT CONDITIONING IN FORMING DISORDERS?

HOW IS THIS APPROACH SUCCESSFUL?

HOW HAS THE CLASSICAL CONDITIONING PART OF THE BEHAVIOR APPROACH BEEN DISPROVED?

HOW IS THIS APPROACH REDUCTIONIST?

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PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACHES

The disorders attract attention from family and friends, this can be rewarding meaning the behaviour is being reinforced and more likely to continue

Successful for treating specific phobias

Little evidence early fearful encounters might lead classical conditioning of fear to object (e.g. study found only 2% of children who suffered from water phobia had a traumatic experience)

ignores cognitive and emotional contributions to development of psychopathology - ignores genetic contribution

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PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACHES

COGNITIVE APPROACH

WHAT DOES THE COGNITIVE APPROACH ENTAIL?

WHAT IS THE FIRST ASSUMPTION OF THE CONGITIVE APPROACH?

WHAT IS THE SECOND ASSUMPTION OF THE COGNITIVE APPROACH?

WHAT IS THE THIRD ASSUMPTION OF THE COGITIVE APPROACH?

WHAT 3 NEGATIVE SCHEMATA ARE INVOLVED IN BECKS MODEL OF DEPRESSION?

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PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACHES

Links psychological disorders to dysfunctional thoughts and perceptions

Behaviour is influenced by schemata which relate to how we see ourselves e.g. 'I am confident'

Schemata develops on basis of early experiences - traumantic life develop negative schemata

Activated negative schemata lead to negative automatic thoughts

1) Negative view of the self  2) Negative view of the world  3) Negative view of the future

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PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACHES

WHAT IS GOOD ABOUT THIS APPROACH?

HOW HAS BECK AND CLARKS STUDY SUPPORTED THIS APPROACH?

WHAT ARE THE LIMITTIONS OF THIS STUDY?

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PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACHES

Approach focuses on peoples experiences, feelings and interpretations

Distorted and irrational beliefs are common among patients with mental disorders

  • Schemata and how they develop is vague and lacking detail
  • Takes no account of biological or gentic factors
  • Disorders themselves may lead to dysfunctional feeling
  • Negative thoughts sometimes reflect accurate view of world
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