Carbohydrates 3: Structural Units

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  • Created by: racheon
  • Created on: 22-02-14 11:43
How can beta-glucose molecules be bonded in a long chain?
Through numerous condensation reactions.
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When alpha-glucose are bonded what do they form?
Coiled, spring-like chains.
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What shape are beta-glucose chains once they've been condensed, and how many beta-glucose molecules can they contain?
Long and straight, and 10,000.
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Are beta-glucose chains stronger or weaker than amylose?
Stronger.
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What are beta-glucose polymer chains called?
Cellulose chains.
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Where is cellulose found, and what makes it special?
Only in plants, and it's the most abundant structural polysaccharide in nature.
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Cellulose fibres are arranged in a specific way to form what?
Plant cell walls.
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Why do hydrogen bonds form between glucose monomers in cellulose molecules?
Because they contain so many OH groups.
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How do cellulose molecules cross-link?
By hydrogen bonds.
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What do 60-70 cellulose molecules cross-link to form?
Bundles called microfibrils.
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What are microfibrils held together by, and what does this form?
Hydrogen bonds, and it forms macrofibrils.
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What do macrofibrils have?
Great mechanical strength.
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Where are macrofibrils embedded and what does this form?
They're embedded in a polysaccharide glue of substances called pectins which form cell walls.
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What are 2 features of plant cell walls?
They give strength to each cell and support the whole plant.
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What allows water to move through and along cell walls, and in and out of cells?
The arrangement of macrofibrils.
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Why doesn't water in the cell cause it to burst?
Because the cell wall prevents it from bursting.
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What are turgid cells and what is their role in a plant?
They are cells full of water and they help support the whole plant.
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What does the arrangement of macrofibrils in a cell wall determine?
How cells in the wall can grow or change shape.
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What does reinforcing cell walls with other substances provide?
Extra support or it makes them waterproof.
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What does the polysaccharide chitin form?
The exoskeleton of insects.
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What is the polysaccharide peptidoglycan the basis of?
Cell walls found around most bacteria.
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Give 2 examples of monosaccharides and explain their characteristics, if they have any, and their role in organisms.
Glucose - small, soluble, sweet and crystalline. Provides energy via respiration. Deoxyribose - part of DNA,
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Give an example of a disaccharide and explain it's characteristics and role in organisms.
Maltose - small, soluble, sweet and crystalline. A sugar obtained when starch is broken down. It can be split further to glucose.
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Give 2 examples of polysaccharides and explain their characteristics and roles in organisms.
Starch & glycogen-molecules of alpha-glucose joined by condensation. Insoluble in water. Forms grains/granules. Energy-storage. Cellulose- molecules of beta-glucose joined by condensation. Insoluble in water. Strong. Structural. Found in plant cells.
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Why do the differences between starch and cellulose occur?
Because of the differences between alpha- and beta-glucose.
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Where is the OH in alpha- and beta-glucose.
Alpha - at C1 below the plane of the ring. Beta - at C1 above the plane of the ring.
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Card 2

Front

When alpha-glucose are bonded what do they form?

Back

Coiled, spring-like chains.

Card 3

Front

What shape are beta-glucose chains once they've been condensed, and how many beta-glucose molecules can they contain?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Are beta-glucose chains stronger or weaker than amylose?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are beta-glucose polymer chains called?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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