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What you need to know:
· Describe with the aid of diagrams, the molecular structure of
alpha-glucose as an example of a monosaccharide carbohydrate
· State the structural difference between alpha- and beta-glucose.
· Describe with the aid of diagrams, the formation and breakage of
glycosidic bonds in the synthesis and hydrolysis of a disaccharide
(maltose) and a polysaccharide(amylose)
· Compare and contrast the structure and functions of starch
(amylose) and cellulose.
· Describe with the aid of diagrams, the structure of glycogen.
· Explain how the structures of glucose, starch, glycogen and
cellulose molecules relate to their functions in living organisms.…read more

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Background
· Carbohydrates are made up of sugar units.
· They are formed from Carbon, Oxygen &
hydrogen. (CH20)
· They are the main source of energy in living
organisms.
· The basic unit is a monosaccharide. Examples
of this include glucose, galactose and fructose.…read more

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Glucose (hexose)
· An example of a monosaccharide is Glucose.
Glucose comes in two forms; Alpha and Beta
glucose.
·
· These are called Isomers, this means that they
have different properties but the same
molecular structure.…read more

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Disaccharides
· A disaccharide is when 2 monosaccharides join together.
· Glucose is the monomer( a molecule which can join together to form a polymer). It
is capable of linking together to form a disaccharide.
· A condensation reaction is the idea that as two Carbohydrate molecules join
together (glycosidic bond-covalent and very strong) water is formed. In the
reversal of this reaction, where water is taken in it is called a hydrolysis reaction. In
maltose's' case, the enzyme maltase breaks it apart.
· During synthesis, a hydrogen atom of one monosaccharide bonds to the hydroxyl
(OH) group of another, releasing a water molecule.
Component Monosaccharide Disaccharide created
Alpha Glucose + Alpha Maltose
Glucose.
Glucose + Galactose. Lactose
Glucose + Fructose. Sucrose…read more

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Polysaccharides
· This is a chain of monomers which are called
polymers or in a Carbohydrates case
Polysaccharides.
· Starch is a polymer of sugar. Linking together
thousands of alpha-glucose molecule
produces amylose which is a main component
of Starch.…read more

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