Carbohydrates

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Brief Notes

  • Chemical formula for glucose- C6H12O6
  • General formula for an alkane- CnH2n+2
  • Many monomers (1 units) join to make a polymer (many units)

Carbohydrates:

  • Made of: (hydrated carbon)
    -carbon
    -hydrogen
    -oxygen
  • Function:
              -provide energy --> lots of chemical bonds so lots of energy is released when broken
    Plants- structural
              - cellulose
  • Structure:
    -polymers of single units, often glucose- monosaccharides 
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Alpha and Beta Glucose Molecules

  • C6H12O6
  • Hexose- 6 carbon ring
  • General formula for monosaccharides (one sugar unit)- CnH2nOn

Alpha Glucose Structural Formula:

Beta Glucose Structural Formula:

(http://www.chemeddl.org/resources/models360/files/107526/d-glucose-beta%20Haworth.png)

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Disaccharides- Example of Maltose

  • 2 sugar unit
  • maltose- C12H22O11
  • alpha glucose + beta glucose --> maltose and water 
  • ^ this is a condensation reaction because water is a product

(http://usmle.biochemistryformedics.com/wp-content/uploads/Maltose.jpg) 

  • glycosidic bond of 1,4 (joined at carbon 1 and carbon 4)
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