BY2 - Transport in animals and plants - part two

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  • Created by: Danielle
  • Created on: 02-01-14 12:41
What is diffrrent about the oxygen dissociation curve of the lug worm (lives on seashore, oxygen less readily available) compared to human haemoglobin?
The curve is very much to the left
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At high altitudes the partial pressure of oxygen is ___
Lower
2 of 60
Name two features of animals that live in high altitudes such as the lama?
Haemoglobin loads more readily with oxygen and theres a higher number of red blood cells
3 of 60
What does myglobin do in muscles?
Acts as an oxygen store
4 of 60
When does oxymyoglobin unload its oxygen?
When partial pressure of oxygen becomes low for example during exercise
5 of 60
Name the three ways carbon dioxide is transported?
- In solution in the plasma - As hydrogencarbonate - In combination with haemoglobin to form carbamino-haemoglobin
6 of 60
*32 What is the significance of the inward movement of chloride ions into the red blood cell?
To preserve electrochemical neutrality
7 of 60
What is tissue fluid?
Plasma minus plasma proteins
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*33 Name the two opposing forces involved in forcing tissue fluid out of the blood plasma in capillaries and into the surrounding tissues
Hydrostatic pressure and waterpotentiak/osmosis
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*34 Name the two routes by which tissue fluid returns to the bloodstream
Venous end and lymphatic system
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What does tissue fluid do?
Bathes cells, feeding them with glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, salts and water, also removes waste from cells
11 of 60
What factors are responsible for the movement of solutes and water in and out of capillaries?
Blood pressure and diffusion
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1- When the blood reaches the arterial end of a capillary it is ___ under pressure, the ___ pressure forces fluid from blood through capillary walls into spaces between cells
High and hydrostatic
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2 - The outward flow is opposed by the reduced ___ of the blood, created by the presence of the ___ proteins
Water potential and plasma
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3 - The hydrostatic pressure of the blood is greater than the ___ forces, so there is a net flow of water and solutes ___ of the blood
Osmotic and out
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4 - At the arterial end of the capilary bed the diffusion gradient for solutes e.g. glucose, favours movement from the capillaries to tissue fluid, because ___
These substances are being used during cell metabolism
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5 - At the venous end of the capillary bed the blood pressure is __ and water passes into capillaries by __, reduced water potential of blood created by ___ causes a net flow of water
Lower, osmosis and presence of plasma proteins
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6 - At the venous end tissue fluid picks up __ and other excretory substances, some of this fluid goes back into capillaries but some drains into lymphatic system and its returned to the __ via the thoratic duct, which empties into a vein near heart
Venous system and carbon dioxide
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What is the partial pressure of oxygen?
A measure of the oxygen concentration, the greater the concentration of dissolved oxygen tge higher its partial pressure
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*30 Explain the significance of the difference between the oxygen dissociation curve of a foetus and the mother
It is more to left/combines more readily with oxygen, higher affinity for oxygen so takes up more oxygen from mums haemoglobin
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Where is the foetal haemoglobin dissociation curve compared to the adult?
To the left
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Does foetal haemoglobin have a higher or lower affinity for oxygen?
A higher/greater affinity for oxygen
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What does the xylem transport?
Water and Mineral salts
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What does the phloem transport?
Sugars and amino acids
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Name the four different types of cells that make up the xylem?
Vessels, tracheids, fibres and xylem parenchyma
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What is special about the vessels and tracheids in the xylem?
They are dead cells because lignin has been deposited on the cellulose cell walls making them impermeable to water and solutes, also provides strength and support
26 of 60
What is the region of greatest uptake in the root?
The root hair
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Why does the soil water have higher water potential?
Because it contains mineral salts
28 of 60
Why does water enter the root hair?
Due to a low water potential in vacuole, causes water to enter down a water potential gradient by osmosis in one of three ways
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Name the three ways in which water can travel along the cells of the cortex or the root?
- The apoplast - through the cell wall - The symplast - through the cytoplasm and plasmodesmata - The vacuolar pathway - from vacuole to vacuole
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*35 State two functions of xylem
Support and transport of water
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*36 Describe how water enters a root hair cell
Soil solution has high wp, root hair cells have low wp so water moves in by osmisis
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Where is the xylem found?
In the center of the root
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What is the xylem surrounded by?
A single layer of cells called the endodermis
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What is the Casparian strip?
The endodermin impregnated with a waxy material called suberin
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Which pathway is the only way water can pass the endodermis to the xylem?
The symplast pathway
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*37 Explain why water passing along the apoplast pathway has to be re-routed when it reaches the endodermis
Endodermal cell has Casparian strip that prevents the passage of water
37 of 60
*38 Suggest the effect of a respiratory inhibitor on mineral uptake
Reduced or stopped as it is an energy requiring process
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How are minerals absorbed to the root hairs?
By active transport
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Which pathway do minerals use when absorbed?
The apoplast pathway
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What happens when minerals reach the endodermis/Casparian strip?
Ions enter the cytoplasm of the cell where they can be diffused or actively transported to the xylem
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In which form does nitrogen enter the plant?
Nitrate ions or ammonium ions
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What is cohesion?
Water molecules tend to stick together
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What is adhesion?
The water molecules stick to the walls of the xylem
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What is capillarity ?
The tendency for water to rise in narrow tubes
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What are the three main forces involved in water transport from root to leaf?
Root pressure, transpiration and capillarity
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What is used to measure the rate of transpiration?
A potometer
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How will an increased temperature affect the rate of transpiration?
Increases
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How will a decreased temperature affect the rate of transpiration?
Decreases
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How will a higher humidity affect the rate of transpiratiin?
Decrease
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How will a lower humidity affect the rate of tranpiration?
Increase
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How does lack of movement in the air affect the rate of transpiration?
Decreases
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How does increased movement in the air affect the rate of tranpiration?
Increases
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How does a light intensity affect transpiration?
It affects the degree of stomatal opening
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*39 Stare whether the rate of transpiration increases or decreases at (a) increased wind speed (b) increased light intensity (c) increased humidity
(a) Increase (b) Increase (c) Decrease
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What are hydrophytes?
Plants that live in water
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What are xerophytes?
Plants that live in scarce water conditions
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What are mesoohytes?
Plants that live in conditions of adequate water supplies
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How does sunken stomata reduce water loss?
By reducing the gradient between the atmosphere and the leaf
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*40 Explain how suken stomata reduce transpiration
Water evap from leaves trapped in the region above stomata becomes saturated with vapour, wp gradient is reduced
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

At high altitudes the partial pressure of oxygen is ___

Back

Lower

Card 3

Front

Name two features of animals that live in high altitudes such as the lama?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does myglobin do in muscles?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

When does oxymyoglobin unload its oxygen?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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